Notes - FDNS 2100 Chapter 1 Concepts and Controversies Food...

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FDNS 2100 8/19/10 Chapter 1: Concepts and Controversies- Food Choices and Human Health A Lifetime of Nourishment o How powerful is a nutritional diet in preventing diseases? Some diseases are strongly influences by diets, others no so much Nutrition influences long term health within the range set by genetic inheritance Top cause of illness and death: heart disease, cancers, strokes… Six Classes of Nutrients o Carbohydrates o Fats o Proteins o Vitamins o Minerals o Water Organic nutrients: Carbohydrates, fats, proteins, vitamins Nutrients come from food o Provide energy (carbs) o Provide building blocks (proteins) o Maintain body cells o Essential: must be obtained from the diet Cholesterol is not an essential nutrient Introducing the Nutrients o Energy-Yielding Nutrients Energy measured in kCal
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FDNS 2100 Carbs Fat Protein [alcohol- not a “nutrient”] o Non-energy yielding nutrients Vitamins Organic compounds Consumed in small quantities Assist in body processes (digestion) Vulnerable to destruction (i.e. heating up vegetables destroys the nutrients in them) Minerals Inorganic elements Consumed in varying quantities Structural component- not metabolized, do not yield E- energy Indestructible Water *** most important nutrient**** Indispensable and abundant Often taken for granted Enormous consumption compared to other nutrients Participation in many chemical reaction Provides environment for many bodily activities Maintaining of blood pressure Calorie values of energy nutrients o Carbs- 4cal/g o Fat (lipid)- 9 cal/g
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FDNS 2100 o Protein- 4 cal/g o Vitamins- 0 cal/g o Minerals- 0cal/g o Water- 0 cal/g o Alcohol= 7cal/g is not a nutrient as it does not support growth What is a calorie? o A measurement of energy o “the amount of heat it takes to raise the temp of 1 gram of water by 1 degree Celsius” o Food is measured in kilocalories (kCal) Some food offer beneficial non-nutrients called phyto-chemicals Nutrition Assessment of Individuals o Anthropometric Data Height, weight Body composition Skin fold Underwater weighing Bioelectrical impedance – low level current DEXA – low level xray o Biochemical – lab tests Blood, urine o Clinical Physical exams Medical history Drug use. SES o Dietary
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FDNS 2100 24 hr recall, food record Food frequency questionnaire 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans o Consume a variety of foods within and among basic food groups while staying within energy needs o Control calorie intake to manage body weight o Be physically active every day o Increase daily intake of fruits and veggies whole grains and nonfat or low fat milk and milk products o Choose and prepare food with little salt o If you drink alcoholic drinks, do so in moderation o Keep foods safe to eat What is healthy diet? o
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Notes - FDNS 2100 Chapter 1 Concepts and Controversies Food...

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