Lecture3 - Quantum Theory and Atomic Structure Chapters 7...

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1 Chapters 7 and 8 Quantum Theory and Atomic Structure Quantum Theory and Atomic Structure Review Chapter 7 and 8 Chapter 7 Problems: 5, 31, 36, 37, 38, 45, 46, 47, 49, 53, 54, 59, 62, 63, 71, 75, 88 Chapter 8 Problem: 7, 8 , 9, 11, 13, 18, 21, 23, 39, 43, 46, 48, 53, 55, 59 Entering the Quantum World Newtonian Mechanics seem to quantify all observations (of particle dynamics) Continuous variable – mass of apple appears as a continuous function/density Newton’s apple BUT at Atomic Level would appear discrete QUANTUM EFFECT…Nature becomes discrete…might expect classical (continuous mechanics to break down and need to use discrete variable integer (quantized) units And yet there is more…… Key “Rotten Apple” Experiments Challenging Newtonian View 1. Ultraviolet Catastrophe Ideal blackbody radiator should emit red orange yellow blue uv Classical heat/colour viewed as oscillations of lattice/dipoles and should be continuous function Classically damping goes as ν 2 ; so bluer colours observed only at higher energies for a given material NEVER OBSERVED!!
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2 Blackbody Radiation: Ultraviolet Catastrophe E = n h ν smoldering coal electric heating element light bulb filament Your Grandma knew there was something wrong Planck abandoned classical mechanics: Energy is quantized ( E = n h ν ) and substituted into classical expression to derive quantitative expression: ρ ( ν ,T) = 8 π h ν 3 d ν / c 3 (e h ν /kT -1) Jm -3 first occurrence of “Planck’s constant” h Rotten Apple Experiments (cont.) 2. The Photoelectric Effect • Further Defiance to the notion of continuous variable functions for Energy (of all things) • Only certain colours seem to lead to electron emission of metals no matter how intense • Electrons are not “colour blind”!! c = λ ν The Wave Nature of Light The Wave Nature of Light Classical Description of Waves Bathtub Principle : The larger the amplitude the more energy in the wave…the bigger the splash…continuous (any value possible as E lAl 2 ) A Observations: 1) Threshold frequency ν 0 for electron emission 2) K.E.
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Lecture3 - Quantum Theory and Atomic Structure Chapters 7...

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