Lecture12 - Kinetics Rates and Mechanisms of Chemical...

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1 CHM151 University of Toronto Chapter 16 Kinetics: Rates and Mechanisms of Chemical Reactions CHM151 University of Toronto Kinetics: Rates and Mechanisms of Chemical Reactions 16.1 Factors That Influence Reaction Rates 16.2 Expressing the Reaction Rate 16.3 The Rate Law and Its Components 16.4 Integrated Rate Laws: Concentration Changes over Time 16.7 Reaction Mechanisms: Steps in the Overall Reaction 16.8 Catalysis: Speeding Up a Chemical Reaction The Ozone Hole and “Saving Planet Earth 16.5 The Effect of Temperature on Reaction Rate 16.6 Explaining the Effects of Concentration and Temperature CHM151 University of Toronto “Suggested Suggested ” Problems Problems Chapter 16 : 2, 3, 5, 14, 18, 21, 23, 25, 30, 32, 34, 39, 43, 47, 49, 53, 57, 62, 64, 69, 70, 72, 74, 78, 82, 85, 94, 99, 101, 110, 112, 114, 120 Be able to describe the factors that control reaction rates, distinguish between thermodynamics and kinetics, solve for reaction rates, time of reaction, determine reaction mechanisms from rate data, affects of temperature re: Arrenhius expression, and affects of catalysts on kinetics/mechanisms. CHM151 University of Toronto Demo Demo – “Money to Burn Money to Burn Reaction: 1) CH 3 CH 2 OH(l) + 3O2(g) Æ 2CO 2 + 3H 2 O(g) + q (heat) [CH3CH2)H] = 10 M; PO 2 ~ .15 atm 2) CH 3 CH 2 OH + 3O 2 (g) Æ 2CO 2 + 3H 2 O(g) + q' [CH3CH2)H] = 5 M; PO 2 ~ .15 atm Also H 2 O(l) + q" Æ H 2 O(g) For case 2) total heat release is q' - q" What is going on with respect to: Reaction rates? Activation Barriers? NOTE IF TIME IS MONEY…. .KINETICS IS $$
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2 CHM151 University of Toronto Reaction Kinetics: Basic Concepts Reaction Kinetics: Basic Concepts Need to know if reaction will occur or not (spontaneous) Æ Δ G Need to know how fast a reaction will occur Æ kinetics Factors that affect reaction rates: Collision frequency (concentrations of reactants) Orientation factors (must have correct aligment) Energy of collision must be sufficient to overcome energy barriers to reaction (e.g. bond breaking) Kinetics provide microscopic information on how reactions occur…reaction mechanisms = control CHM151 University of Toronto Importance of Reaction Kinetics Importance of Reaction Kinetics At Equilibrium the forward and reverse rates of a chemical reaction are equal or in dynamic equlibrium (concentrations are not changing) Perturb a system from equilibrium Æ measureable kinetics Reaction Mechanisms (primary processes in Chemistry) Key Element to Environmental Problems Ozone Depletion Global Warming Drug Design – Drugs are in kinetic competition with body and target antigen
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This note was uploaded on 04/18/2011 for the course CHM 151 taught by Professor Dong during the Winter '08 term at University of Toronto.

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Lecture12 - Kinetics Rates and Mechanisms of Chemical...

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