Chapter10 - What Is an Alkyl Halide 10 Alkyl Halides Based...

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1 10. Alkyl Halides Based on McMurry’s Organic Chemistry , 6 th edition 2 What Is an Alkyl Halide? ± An organic compound containing at least one carbon- halogen bond (C-X) ± X (F, Cl, Br, I) replaces H ± Can contain many C-X bonds ± Properties and some uses ± Fire-resistant solvents ± Refrigerants ± Pharmaceuticals and precursors 3 10.1 Naming Alkyl Halides ± Name is based on longest carbon chain ± (Contains double or triple bond if present) ± Number from end nearest any substituent (alkyl or halogen) 4 Naming with Multiple Halides ± If more than one of the same kind of halogen is present, use prefix di, tri, tetra ± If there are several different halogens, number them and list them in alphabetical order
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2 5 Naming if Two Halides or Alkyl Are Equally Distant from Ends of Chain ± Begin at the end nearer the substituent whose name comes first in the alphabet 6 Many Alkyl Halides That Are Widely Used Have Common Names ± Chloroform ± Carbon tetrachloride ± Methylene chloride ± Methyl iodide ± Trichloroethylene 7 10.2 Structure of Alkyl Halides ± C-X bond is longer as you go down periodic table ± C-X bond is weaker as you go down periodic table ± C-X bond is polarized with slight positive on carbon and slight negative on halogen 8 10.3 Preparing Alkyl Halides ± Alkyl halide is from addition of HCl, HBr, HI to alkenes to give Markovnikov product (see Alkenes chapter) ± Alkyl dihalide from anti addition of bromine or chlorine
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This note was uploaded on 04/18/2011 for the course CHM 151 taught by Professor Dong during the Winter '08 term at University of Toronto.

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Chapter10 - What Is an Alkyl Halide 10 Alkyl Halides Based...

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