Chapter12 - Determining the Structure of Compounds The...

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1 1 Determining the Structure of Compounds ± The analysis of the outcome of a reaction requires that we know the full structure of the products as well as the reactants ± In the 19 th and early 20 th centuries, structures were determined by synthesis and chemical degradation that related compounds to each other ± Physical methods now permit structures to be determined directly. We will examine: ± mass spectrometry (MS) ± infrared (IR) spectroscopy ± nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) ± single crystal X-ray diffraction Figure S2.9 Silberberg X = Atomic symbol of the element A = mass number; A = Z + N Isotope = atoms of an element with the same number of protons, but a different number of neutrons A Z Z = atomic number (the number of protons in the nucleus) N = number of neutrons in the nucleus X The Symbol of the Atom or Isotope Atomic Symbols, Isotopes, Numbers Table of isotopes: Figure Silberberg B2.1 or S B2.1 Formation of a Positively Charged Neon Particle in a Mass Spectrometer Figure S B2.2 Identification of the isotopes of neon in a Mass Spectrometer
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2 5 M 12.1 Mass Spectrometry (MS) ± Measures molecular weight ± Sample vaporized and subjected to bombardment by electrons that remove an electron ± Creates a cation-radical ± Bonds in cation radicals begin to break (fragment) ± Charge to mass ratio is measured The Mass Spectrum ± Plot mass of ions (m/z) (x-axis) versus the intensity of the signal (roughly corresponding to the number of
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This note was uploaded on 04/18/2011 for the course CHM 151 taught by Professor Dong during the Winter '08 term at University of Toronto- Toronto.

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Chapter12 - Determining the Structure of Compounds The...

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