Chapter 4 - Psych-2310 - Ch 4 Soc Perception Soc perception...

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Ch 4 Soc Perception Soc perception: how we form impressions and make inferences about other people HOW DO WE THINK ABOUT WHY OTHER PEOPLE DO WHAT THEY DO? o three major theories that describe how we think about why people engage in particular types of behavior ATTRIBUTION THEORY: how you attribute someone’s beh based on o external attribution a n ex plana tion o f a p e r s on ' s behavior a s cau se d by s i t u a tional , or ex tern a l , f a ctors (normally nice person is rude when yelled out) o internal attribution an ex planation of a per s on's b e havior a s caused by dis posit i o n a l, o r intern a l, f a ct or s (ex rude in all sit) we want to know why they behaved so we can predict their future beh CORRESPONDENT INFERENCE THEORY: p eo pl e in fe r wh e th e r a person 's beha v i o r i s ca u se d by int e rn a l di s p os itions of th e p erso n b y lo o kin g a t va riou s f ac tor s re l a t ed to th a t act three factors that influence the extent to which you attribute behavior to the person as opposed to the situation: You can best internally attribute if they chose, is not of situational expectation, and has noncommon effects o 1. Does the person have the choice to engage in the action? Ex if a psyc student is forced to take stats, then u can’t assume they like stats o 2. Is the behavior expected based on the social role or circumstance? Ex wearing a tux to a wedding is, so don’t conclude that they are stylish o 3. What are the intended effects or consequences of their behavior? If there are many factors (ex job with money and with friends), it’s harder to know why they chose it Ex choose job u want despite what your dad wants COVARIATION THEORY: how people determine the causes of a person's behavior by focusing on the factors present and absent when a behavior does and does not occur, and specifically on the role of consensus, dis tinctiveness, and consistency Three components. You can best internally attribute if low consensus, low distinctiveness, high consistency o consensus information about whether other people generally behave in the same way toward the stimulus as the target person – if lots of ppl act in the same way, more likely to be situational attribution o distinctiveness inf or m a ti on about w h e th er a p e r so n 's b e h av i or i s gener a ll y th e sa m e t owa rd di ffere nt st imuli – if they beh uniquely to a sit, then make sit attribution o consistency info r ma t ion abou t wh e th e r a p e r so n 's b e h av i or t oward a g i ve n s timulu s i s th e sa m e across t ime – if they beh uniquely to a sit, then make sit attribution ex you will enjoy a book if lots of people, even ur nonreading sister, says it’s good
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gender diff: usu attribute men’s success to ability and women’s success to effort WHAT TYPES OF ERRORS DO WE MAKE IN THINKING ABOUT OTHER PEOPLE?
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