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Chapter 5 - Psych-2310 - Social Psych-Chapter 5 Social...

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Social Psych-Chapter 5 Social Cognition Automatic thinking- a type of decision-making process that occurs at an unconscious or automatic level and is entirely effortless and unintentional Heuristics- mental shortcuts often used to form judgments and make decisions, which can save people time but can also lead to inaccurate judgments Social cognition- how we think about the social world, and in particular how we select, interpret, and sue information to make judgments about the world Intuition- a decision-making shortcut in which we rely on our instinct instead of relying on more objective information Controlled or effortful thinking- can lead to more accurate judgments - Ex. When choosing a university you don’t make a snap judgment based on a picture, you think about it How can shortcuts lead to errors in thinking about the world? - A particular shortcut called availability - meaning the ease at which an idea comes to mind, is often used Intuition -One of the largest shortcuts we take is to rely on our instinct or intuition instead of relying on more objective information for example; employers think interviews tell more about a person than objective measures such as tests - Even experts don’t benefit from relying on their intuition, and studies have shown relying on first instincts on tests is also not the best option Availability Availability heuristic-refers to the tendency to estimate the likelihood of an event based on the ease with which instances of it are available in memory, with events that come to mind more easily being seen as more likely or prevalent ex. Parents worry about their children getting unlikely diseases because they are highly publicized rather than worrying about more common risks such as seatbelts in cars. Statistics show we worry about the wrong things The impact of past experiences- past experiences activate schemas (mental structures that organize our knowledge about the world and influence how we interpret people and events) ex. If your cousin owned a car that was unreliable, your schemas for that car would be negative. This also happens more frequently if the event is recent, such as having just watched a movie Priming- is the process by which recent experiences increase the accessibility of a given trait or concept and can occur at a subconscious or subliminal level. Ex. Showing words subliminally about elderly people made students walk slower
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The information available- we have more information about certain outcomes and we mistakenly misjudge the likelihood of an event occurring on the amount of information. Ex. Lottery winners
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