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Chapter 9 - Psych - 2310

Chapter 9 - Psych - 2310 - Chapter 9Group influence The...

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Chapter 9—Group influence: The Impact of Group Process How do Groups Influence Behaviour? - According to social psychology, when tipping at a restaurant single people were most generous (tipping an average of 19 %) and parties of four or more were the least gen (tipping an average of 11%). This section will examine this and other ways in which groups influence behaviour, including social facilitation, social loafing, and cohesion. Social Facilitation - Deindividualization describes the dangers of the group setting on individuals’ behavio in other cases individuals behaviour can benefit from the presence of a group. This w first noticed by Norman Triplett, Triplett asked children to wind string on a fishing ree as fast as they could—children who perform this task in the presence of other childre wound the string significantly faster than those who perform this task alone. – - Social facilitation —a phenomenon in which people do better on particular tasks in the presence of a group compared to when they are alone Mere Presence - One example of social facilitation is that the mere presence of other people is energiz For example: you might prefer to do an aerobics class with other people than to do aerobics to a video in your own home. Evaluation Apprehension - Other researchers believe that social facilitation is caused not simply by mere presen other people in an environment, but rather by peoples concern about being evaluate this audience Distraction - Another explanation for the effect of arousal on performance of other people is distracting- even in case in which they are not evaluating our performance. This distraction decreases our ability to focus on a particular task. - If we are performing a complex task, the distraction impairs our performance - People take less time completing the easy task in front of a watching audience then t did alone, but take more time completing the difficult task in front of others than alon Social Loafing - Social loafing : a group-produced reduction in individual output on easy tasks where contributions are pooled.
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- Example—in one study people were put in groups of two, four or six and put in soundproof rooms and asked to clap and cheer as loud as they could. Each student m the most noise when alone and least amount of noise when in the group of six. When participants were alone they felt compelled to make as much noise as possible but w in a larger group they reduced their effort and made considerable less noise. - What factors influence social loafing?? According to the collective effort model : people are motivated to exert in group tasks only when they believe their distinct efforts are identifiable, that these efforts will make a difference in the groups success, and when they will experience positive outcomes. These factors are: I. Identifiable contributions - Whether people believe that their own contribution will be recognizied - People socially loaf in part because they ca “hide-in-a-crowd”
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Chapter 9 - Psych - 2310 - Chapter 9Group influence The...

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