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Chapter 11 - Psych-2310 - PSYCH 2310 SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY...

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PSYCH 2310 SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY CHAPTER 11: AGGRESSION - Aggression: Refers to physical or verbal behaviour that is intended to hurt another person who does not want to be injured o Not including accidental or assertive acts - Different types of aggression: o Emotional or Hostile Aggression: aggression in which one inflicts harm for its own sake Ex. A jealous lover striking out in rage o Instrumental Aggression: inflicting harm in order to obtain something of value Ex. People who kill others in self defence How Do Biological Factors Influence Aggression? - One of the most basic fundamental factors that influences aggression is biological makeup: instincts and evolution, genetics and hormones - Research on male prison occupants: o Data found that those who had committed violent crimes had higher testosterone levels then those men who had committed property crimes o Men with higher testosterone levels had violated more rules while in prison o This suggests that testosterone levels are associated with men’s aggression behaviour Instinct and Evolutionary Theories - Freud’s Death Wish o Sigmund Freud believed that people possess a powerful death wish, or drive, caused by the trouble or tensions of daily life o In order to cope people need to channel their energy in some direction o Turn inward: engage in self-destructive behaviour o Turn outward: engage in aggression against other people o He also saw aggression as a type of energy that builds up over time until it is released: catharsis Not always an effective way of dealing with aggressive feelings Evidence suggests that engaging in aggressive behavior does not reduce aggressive feelings, and in some cases may even increase them Why is catharsis so ineffective? Because imagining or observing aggression may actually feel good, which can then become rewarding - Lorenz’s Instinct Theory o Saw aggression as a natural and instinctual motivation o Instinct theory: peoples innate desire to live leads to our desire to aggress against others This instinct to aggress would develop because only those animals that were aggressive would ensure that they would survive o His theory and others propose that the drive for aggression is evolutionarily adaptive because those who are aggressive have a greater likelihood of living Genetics - Suggested that up to 50% of the variance in aggression may be caused by genetic factors - Individual differences in rates of aggression are seen as early as age 3 - Study done on classroom children:
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o Boys showed remarkable consistency in their expression of aggression; boys who engaged in more of one type of aggression also engaged in more of other types o Although girls showed less consistency, relatively consistent associations between different types of aggressive behaviour were also seen o This suggests that genetic factors may be associated with the frequency of aggressive behaviour o Children who are highly aggressive early in life are more likely to be aggressive later -
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