Chapter 13 - Psych-2310 - Social Psychology Chapter 13...

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Social Psychology Chapter 13 Summary Altruism & Personal Behaviour Prosocial Behaviour - Any behaviour that has the goal of helping another person - Can be to improve one’s own well-being (rewards) Examples: cooperating, sharing, comforting Altruism - The desire to help someone - Not for self - Improve another person’s well-being with no benefit to self Example: Jumping onto railway track to save a person who fell Evolutionary Perspective - Can help explain why we are motivated to help - Behaviour as shaped to ensure survival of one’s genes Example: Your act of altruism may lead to your own death but may result in the survival of your child and your genes Kinship Selection - The idea that we are more likely to help those we are genetically related to - Explains why parents may self-sacrifice for the benefit of their children Evidence for Kinship Selection - Findings indicated that relationship factors, including emotional closeness and similarity, influence helping in part because genetic factors lead to these relationship factors (we feel similar and close to our relatives, which leads to our desire to help them) - People should be more likely to help those who are likely to reproduce and pass on their genes (vs. those in poor health and are unlikely to survive and/or old)
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Reciprocal Altruism - The idea that we are motivated to help others due to the expectation that they will help us in return later on - Altruistic behaviour toward non-related others Evidence for Reciprocal Altruism - The tendency to help those who help us is shown even among animals that live in social groups - Because helping others leads them to reciprocate, this type of cooperation among group members, regardless of their genetic connection, increases survival Are Men or Women More Helpful? - Men = more likely to help in situations that call for heroic or brave behaviour (example: rescuing someone from a burning building) - Explanations: men experience fewer costs for helping than do women, men who help are larger and have more training than men who don’t help (suggesting they expect to experience fewer costs of helping. Women prefer risk-prone brave males over risk-averse non-brave males - Women help in different ways (example: those who assisted the Jews during the Holocaust – it was still just as life-threatening) - Women are more likely to donate a kidney to a close relative and more likely to volunteer for the Peace Corps and Doctors of the World - Gender differences in helping are found across a range of cultures Empathy - The ability to understand other people’s perspectives and respond emotionally to other people’s experiences - People with more empathy engage more in personal/altruistic behaviours - People show an increase in empathy and prosocial behaviour as they mature, but individuals also vary considerably in their frequency and types of helping - Some evidence points to a genetic link between empathy and behaviour is more similar in identical twins than fraternal twins Moral Reasoning
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