ch 8 Sys Eq - 8 Activity and the Systematic Treatment of...

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8 Activity and the Systematic Treatment of Equilibrium 1
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8-1 Ionic Strength Question: Calculate the pH of 0.10 M HBr. The measured pH value is 1.1. Why? 2
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8-1 Ionic Strength Q decreases if you add the “inert” salt KNO 3 to the solution. The equilibrium “constant” is not really constant! 3
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8-1 Ionic Strength The Explanation: ionic atmosphere 1. An ionic atmosphere, shown as a spherical cloud of charge δ + or δ− , surrounds ions in solution. 2. The charge of the atmosphere is less than the charge of the central ion. 3. The greater the ionic strength of the solution, the greater the charge in each ionic atmosphere. 4
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8-1 Ionic Strength The cation plus its negative atmosphere has less positive charge than the cation alone. The anion plus its ionic atmosphere has less negative charge than the anion alone. The net attraction between the cation with its ionic atmosphere and the anion with its ionic atmosphere is smaller than it would be between pure cation and anion in the
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ch 8 Sys Eq - 8 Activity and the Systematic Treatment of...

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