ANT 2 Review - ANT 2 Review Determination of Biological Sex Sex(biological versus gender(social o o o o o Differences between sexes between size

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ANT 2 Review Determination of Biological Sex Sex (biological) versus gender (social) o Differences between sexes, between size and shape (sexual dimorphism) o Pathologists (don’t need to, deal with flesh) versus anthropologists (have to learn how to sex a bone) o Ususally one of the first aspects of the biological profile to be determined o Primary sex characteristics cannot be detected from overall gross examination of the skeleton o During puberty, humans begin to develop secondary sex characteristics Bones used to determine sex o Skull (sex) Brow Ridge Brow ridge more pronounced in males Brow ridge smaller in females Mandible Larger and more robust in males Small and more gracile in females Shape of forehead Slopes posteriorly in males More vertical in females Inion hook On very back of skulls in males Mastoid Process Large in males Small in females o Pelvis (sex)
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Subpubic Angle Females have wider pelves with a larger circular birth canal (U- shaped/Obtuse) Male pelves are narrower with a smaller and more triangular birth canal (V- shaped/Acute) Ventral Arc only found in females Sciatic Notch Females have a wider sciatic notch Males have a narrower sciatic notch Sacrum Females have a longer, narrower sacrum Males have a shorter, broader sacrum o Angle of legs o Femoral head Larger in males o Ossification of Ribs In males, ossification occurs along margins of ribs In females, ossification occurs more centrally o Carrying angle of arms o Best place to look is pelvis, than skull o Can’t determine transgender from skeleton Non-metric/metric o Nonmetric- looking at/shape Visual analysis of bone o Metric – things you measure Cranial Metric analysis Giles and Elliot method originally 82-89 percent accurate Revised into Holland method 71-90 percent accurate
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Postcrainal assessment Femoral head o Females – Less than 42.5 mm o Males – greater than 47.5 mm Humeral Head o Females – less than 43 mm o Males – greater than 47 mm Determination of Age at Death Aging divisions o Growth and development Until around age 12, good relationship between stature and chronological age
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Gap of aging becomes wider as we age Females tend to mature faster than males Blacks tend to mature faster o Maturation o Degeneration (roughly starts at 30’s) o Metamorphic changes Fetus aging methods o Most studies are conducted during the first 26 weeks of pregnancy because of increased abortions Length of fetus – Haase’s rule Square of each month to arrive at an estimate of crown-heel length Child aging methods o Epiphyseal union Occurs at very specific intervals
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This note was uploaded on 04/18/2011 for the course ANT 3520 taught by Professor K during the Fall '10 term at University of Florida.

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ANT 2 Review - ANT 2 Review Determination of Biological Sex Sex(biological versus gender(social o o o o o Differences between sexes between size

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