Axial and Appendicular Muscles
Readings and Information
Chapter 10: The Muscular System
Questions from chapter 10 that are useful to ponder:
Before you go on: 1-5,7,8
Think about it: none
Testing your recall: 1,2,4
Testing your comprehension: 1,2
Before you go on (chpt 11): 4, (chpt 12): 2,3,4,5,12
Think about it: pg 329
Testing your recall (chpt 11): 7, (chpt 12): 5,6,8-11,14,15,17
True/false (chpt 11): 4 (chpt 12): 7,8
Testing your comprehension (chpt 11): none, (chpt 12): 1,3,4,5
Read before coming to class
Review anatomical position, body directional terms and major joint movements before class – this will ease
the pain of learning individual muscle movements.
Define the 4 important functions of muscle (pg 266-67).
Can you give an example of each?
List general properties of muscles (pg 267) and think about how important it is that muscles are elastic as
well as extensible.
What would happen if a muscle were extensible and not elastic?
Read about the 3 types of muscle tissue, smooth, cardiac, skeletal, and be able to list the general location of
each (pg 266).
Name the 3 layers of connective tissues associated with skeletal muscle (pp 267-68 & Fig 10.2):
endomysium, perimysium, epimysium and fascia.
These connective tissue components enable muscles to
slide over each other and attach to bones.
What does it mean to be muscle bound (Insight 10.1, pg 271).
What can you do to prevent being muscle
Describe the difference between origin, insertion and belly of a muscle (pp 270, Fig 10.4).
Discuss the difference between direct and indirect attachment (pp 269 - 70).
Give an example.
Define an aponeurosis (pg 269).
Can you give an example of one in your body?
Explain the difference between a prime mover (agonist), synergist, antagonist and fixator (pp 270-71) and
be able to give examples of each.
Read about how muscles are named – this can be very helpful (pg 295) and look at Table 11.1 (pg 298) for