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Lecture.29.30.Species Interactions.KRG

Lecture.29.30.Species Interactions.KRG - QUI Z Today Only...

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QUIZ: Today Only on populations and biogeography: lectures 25-28, chapters 54, 55 EXAM: Wednesday Everything sinceSpring Break up to and including Todays lecture
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So far, we ’veseen that … Biodiversity and biogeography has a strong historical component Platetectonics, glaciation, etc. Ecology is also important How species interact with each other and their environment
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We ’ve also seen that … Populations don’t grow exponentially forever Growth is limited to K by ρ -dependent and ρ -independent factors (e.g., 1-N/K) Increasing ρ implies competition among individuals of the same species Intraspecific competition – competition among individuals of the same species
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Intraspecific Competition
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5 But, individuals don’t just interact with only individuals of the same species Predator-prey interactions – wolves and moose Competition among plants species – light, nutrients, moisture, pollinators
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Community ecology … Community – assemblage of species in the same place at the same time How interspecific interactions influence population densities, species distributions, and ultimately lead to evolutionary changes.
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How Can We Organize Interactions?
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8 Interspecific Competition Is Traditionally Viewed as Strong Force Organizing Communities Interaction Effect on Sp. A Effect on Sp. B Competition Negative (-) Negative (-) Foliose and crustose lichen species competing for space
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CompetitiveExclusion Theprincipleof competitiveexclusion holds that no two species can long coexist sharing thesamelimiting resource. Competitive exclusion occurs if onespecies prevents all members of another species fromutilizing a resource and theinferior competitor goes locally extinct.
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How Can We Test the Effect of Interspecific Competition? Hypothesis : Interspecific competition affects distribution and abundance of species Prediction : If interspecific competition affects distribution and abundances, then species grown alone should persist longer and at higher abundance than when grown together with the same resources Test: Gause (1938) grew closely related species of Paramecium together and alone in lab vials with constant food supply
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Two Paramecium species – flasks with constant food supply Days Population Density P. aurelia P. caudatum P. caudatum
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