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historynotes2 - Qin Dynasty (221BC Qin state defeated last...

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Qin Dynasty (221BC – Qin state defeated last of rival states) Oridins of State of Qin o Origins of state In far west Asia – non-Chinese ethnic group Chariot drivers and workers for Zhou kings Zhou king was driven out – asked Qin rulers to “cover their back” Qin then took over old Zhou domains o Gradual Sinification Lord Shang’s Reforms in Qin o Shang Yang (d. 338 BC) o Wei Yang, Gongsun Yang, Lord Shang o Went to Qin in c. 361 BC o Served Duke Xiao (r. 361-338) Declared traitor by Duke Xiao’s son Believed law should be applied to everyone Cut off nose of Duke’s son teacher because Duke’s son got in trouble o Reformed Qin on Legalist policies Instituted County system, xian Administrative – breaks feudal land-holding system for god Land reform to abolish system of land holding and make land alienable (can buy and sell land – private property) If you claim wasteland, you could keep it (swamps – cultivation, get stronger state, better army, and stronger state) Tax reforms – based on the amount of land you held Paid head-count tax depending on how many family members Taxes went to army Legal reforms Shoplifting food – you would go to jail for long periods of time Severe consequences These laws also included mutual responsibilities o Every neighborhood was divided into groups of 5 and 10 people o If you knew someone was breaking the law in your group (neighborhood) you would be prosecuted for the same crime Social reforms – modified family structure Adult sons were not supposed to live with parents Adult brothers could not live under same roof when parents died If broke these laws, taxes would be doubled Encouraged people to have their own land Rank system (carrot in carrot and the stick) For every head you cut off in battle, you would get one degree of ranks Could give ranks to other people in your family Broke aristocracy and made military only method of social progress o If you broke a law, but were in higher rank, you could trade in a rank instead of be punished (like poker chip) Agricultural system Could trade in oxen to promote cultural productivity Standardization Everything must have fixed quota, same weight, same measurements Writing must be same Emperor would soon do this for entire empire Lord Shang’s standard grain measure – lasted 150 years Mass production Similar to assembly line – people have specialized tasks o Qin Legal Texts from Shuihudi
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historynotes2 - Qin Dynasty (221BC Qin state defeated last...

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