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historynotes8 - Paper, Printing, Gunpowder, and Compass...

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Paper, Printing, Gunpowder, and Compass Francis Bacon, Novum Organum AD 1620 o Three inventions which have changed the world: Printing (literature), gunpowder (warfare), and magnet (navigation) Did not realize any of these came from china – thought they were recent European invention Thus – China “made” Europe!! Writing Materials Before Paper (China) o Bamboo/wooden slips – till about 400 AD (when replaced by paper) Take column of bamboo, skin and dry it, then bind it and roll it up Some books may be written on sild o Bronze vessels Western Zhou vessels - narratives – used mold and pushed ingravings in clay o Bone and shell Shang dynasty – divination o Mountains and stelae Emperor gave report card to emperor o Silk Writing Materials before paper (west) o Clay tablets o Stone seals o Papyrus Egypt – reeds of papyrus plant Word paper comes from papyrus o Parchment Rest of Europe throughout middle ages Made from sheep skins Definition: paper is a felted sheet of fibers formed from a water suspension process using a sieve-like screen (not woven into a weave) o It can be made of any kind of fiber including wood pulp, bark, hemp, rags, cotton, ramie o Origins and early development Attributed to Cai Lun in AD 105 – made economically feasible Actually invented by at least 2 nd century BC Probably related to textile manufacture Often when making fabric, you wash it and stir, and if water all stirs out, what you have is a really hard board, like paper Accidental invention? Replaces bamboo strips by AD 300 Transferred everything from bamboo strips to paper or silk o Method of Manufacture Raw materials Long cellulose fibers (hemp) and binding agents, bamboo becomes most common Cutting and soaking the bamboo (to make bamboo paper) o Must soak for 100 days to get soft o Pound, wash, and remove bark o Mix inner fibers with lime and boil in pot for 8 days Cooking the pulp for 8 days o Bleaches it o Take out, wash Put in another vat, then you dip a screen down into pulp o Everything left on screen is paper o Shake out water
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o Flip onto board and press it to squeeze out water Releasing the sheets Drying the sheets o Throw paper onto hot wall o Uses of Paper in China Writing material Money Begun in 9 th c. AD Evolved into true government currency by 11 th c. AD Ceremonial uses Spirit money Effigies o Song capital house that sold paper furniture, etc. – to burn for ancestors so spirits can use it o This is still done today o Spiritual money Decorative items o Paper cutting techniques o Lanterns, cups, cards Clothing and armor o Chain mail armor would rust and it is very hot o Paper armor could stop and arrow just as well – weighs a lot less o Poor people wore paper clothing Toilet paper o Palace ordered many sheets of toilet paper o Arabs noticed o Diffusion of paper to the West
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This note was uploaded on 04/19/2011 for the course HISTORY 80 taught by Professor Barberri-low during the Winter '11 term at UCSB.

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historynotes8 - Paper, Printing, Gunpowder, and Compass...

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