Bis2CF10.Lecture18

Bis2CF10.Lecture18 - Lecture 18 FERNS, ORIGIN OF SEED...

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Unformatted text preview: Lecture 18 FERNS, ORIGIN OF SEED PLANTS Last: seedless vascular plants: lycophytes, horsetails Ferns, including Psilotales “Progymnosperms”: secondary growth “Seed ferns”: origin of the seed (ovule) Next: diversity of gymnospermous seed plants Stomata Lycophytes Overtopping Horsetail (Equisetum) Fern (Osmunda) Equisetum whorled leaves: microphylls strobilus sporangium branches sporangiophore Archaeocalamites & Calamites strobilus sporangium branches Calamophyton (Middle Devonian) sporangiophore Onoclea LIVING FERNS Osmunda Osmunda Rhacophyton Late Devonian LEPTOSPORANGIA: Leptosporangiate ferns annulus Carboniferous Incipient leptosporangium MODERN Leptosporangiate ferns: Osmundaceae pith Gleicheniaceae Hymenophyllaceae Leaves one cell thick Ferns (and other groups) growing on other plants: epiphytes “Water ferns” aquatic, heterosporous Marsilea Marsileaceae Azolla Salviniaceae Salvinia TREE FERNS Cyatheaceae, Dicksoniaceae Waitangi, Aotearoa New Zealand Tree ferns Polypodiaceae vertical annulus Pteridium Polypodium Marattiales Ophioglossales Psilotales: whisk ferns “Rhyniophytes” Psilotum Psilotales: whisk ferns Multiflagellate sperm of Psilotum Psilotum Psilotales: whisk ferns Psilotum Ophioglossales Leptosporangiate fern Cylindrical subterranean gametophytes Psilotales & Ophioglossales Psilotum Ophioglossum Lycophytes Euphyllophytes Pteridophytes Seed plants Pine Fern Lycopodium roots axillary sporangia microphylls leptosporangia Psilotum loss of roots reduced leaves cylindrical gpts fernlike leaves? Zosterophyllum lateral sporangia Aglaophyton typical tracheids branched sporophyte vascular tissue multiflagellate sperm overtopping roots Ophio. reduced leaves whorled leaves axillary branching seeds “progymnosperms” secondary growth Equisetum SEED PLANTS = Spermatophyta Angiosperm Drimys Conifer Pinus SEED PLANTS SEED CYCAD: Cycas Secondary growth: vascular cambium CONIFERS: Pinus Secondary xylem and vascular cambium Secondary xylem and vascular cambium Secondary xylem and vascular cambium (conifer) Secondary xylem and vascular cambium (conifer) Secondary xylem and vascular cambium Collecting cork, Portugal Archaeopteris Late Devonian “progymnosperm” 375 MY Archaeopteris branch system Beck 1960 Archaeopteris stem anatomy SEED PLANTS SEED CYCAD: Cycas Secondary growth: vascular cambium CONIFERS: Pinus Pollen with male gametophyte (microgametophyte) Ancestral seed plant life cycle micropyle megaspore integument megasporangium primary root embryo female gametophyte cotyledons OVULE female gametophyte (megagametophyte) archegonium with egg MATURE SEED Carboniferous “seed ferns” Lyginopteris compound leaf woody trunk Medullosa Early Carboniferous seeds, Scotland (Long 1959-1961) Free integument lobes Micropyle Megasporangium Early Carboniferous seeds, Scotland (Long 1959-1961) Free integument lobes Fertile appendage of “progymnosperm” Megasporangium clusters of sporangia Carboniferous “seed fern” Lyginopteris Late Devonian “progymnosperm” Archaeopteris Axillary branching in seed plants Callistophyton Carboniferous “seed fern” axillary bud with bud scales axillary branch bud scale Lycophytes Euphyllophytes Pteridophytes Seed plants Pine Fern Lycopodium roots axillary sporangia microphylls leptosporangia Psilotum loss of roots reduced leaves cylindrical gpts fernlike leaves? Zosterophyllum lateral sporangia Aglaophyton typical tracheids branched sporophyte vascular tissue multiflagellate sperm overtopping roots Ophio. reduced leaves whorled leaves axillary branching seeds compound leaves Equisetum “progymnosperms” secondary growth (2o xylem, phloem, & periderm ...
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This note was uploaded on 04/19/2011 for the course BIOLOGY BIS 2C taught by Professor Doyle during the Fall '10 term at UC Davis.

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