Bis2CF10.Lecture21

Bis2CF10.Lecture21 - Lecture 21 ANGIOSPERM EVOLUTION &...

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Unformatted text preview: Lecture 21 ANGIOSPERM EVOLUTION & DIVERSITY Last: basic angiosperm features, outgroups, rooting Implications of the molecular rooting Major clades within angiosperms: monocots Eudicots Next: introduction to fungi: water to land Simple leaves = Heterospory Nonmotile sperm naked seeds Opposite leaves Vessels Secondary growth Net-veined leaves 2+2 microsporangia Carpel: ovules enclosed Two integuments Reduced gametophytes Double fertilization Nonmotile sperm CARPEL seeds enclosed Caytonia Qiu et al. 1999 18S nrDNA, rbcL, atpB, atp1, matR EUDICOTS Laurales Magnoliales MAGNOLIIDS Piperales Canellales Chloranthaceae MONOCOTS Ceratophyllum ROOT “ANITA groups” Amborella OUTGROUPS Nymphaeales: herbaceous aquatics Amborella Nymphaea: water lily Cabomba (Nymphaeales) Austrobaileyales Illicium: star anise ROOT “ANITA lines” Amborella OUTGROUPS Amborella Col d’Amieu New Caledonia vesselless wood female female Amborella male Unisexual flowers? Loss of 2o growth Parallel veins Monosulcate Loss 2o growth Tricolpate Drimys winteri: “canelo” Chile WINTERACEAE Tasmannia lanceolata “native pepper” Australia “Leaf-like” carpels in Winteraceae Fusion of young carpel margins Drimys winteri: “canelo” Chile WINTERACEAE “Leaf-like” carpels in Winteraceae Fusion of young carpel margins Carpel development in ANITA lines “Leaf-like” carpels in Winteraceae Fusion of young carpel margins Austrobaileya Mature carpels in ANITA lines ovule “Leaf-like” carpels in Winteraceae Fusion of young carpel margins Trimenia Amborella Unisexual flowers? Loss of 2o growth Parallel veins Monosulcate Loss 2o growth Tricolpate MAGNOLIIDS Magnoliaceae Magnolia Lauraceae Persea Annonaceae Annona Piperaceae Piper Winteraceae Drimys vesselless wood ANITA grade Nymph Aust Amborella wood Chlor Piper Can loss Magnol Magnoliids Primitively vesselless Winteraceae Single origin of vessels VESSELS vessels unordered vessels tracheids Laurales Monocots 3 steps loss Eudicots Amborella Hydatellaceae Cabomba Brasenia Nuphar Barclaya Nymphaeoideae Austrobaileya Trimenia Schisandraceae Illicium Ceratophyllum Hedyosmum Ascarina Sarcandra Chloranthus Piperaceae Saururaceae Lactoris Asaroideae Aristolochioideae Winteraceae Canellaceae Myristicaceae Magnolioideae Liriodendron Galbulimima Degeneria Eupomatia Annonaceae Calycanthoideae Idiospermum Atherospermatac Gomortega Siparunaceae Hortonia Mollinedioideae Monimioideae Lauraceae Hernandioideae Gyrocarpoideae Acorus Araceae Tofieldiaceae Butomus Aponogeton Scheuchzeria Melanthiaceae Nartheciaceae Dioscoreaceae Euptelea Papaveraceae Circaeaster Lardizabalaceae Menispermaceae Berberidaceae Hydrastis Glaucidium core Ranunculac Nelumbo Platanus Proteaceae Trochodendron Tetracentron Buxaceae Unisexual flowers? Loss of 2o growth Parallel veins Monosulcate Loss 2o growth Tricolpate MONOCOTS Arecaceae: palms Poaceae: grasses Liliaceae Lilium MONOCOT SYNAPOMORPHIES inherited from lower? monosulcate pollen SYNAPO SYNAPO SYNAPO derived within eudicots ANCESTRAL IN ANGIOSPERMS Basic angiosperm leaf Net-veined (reticulate) Monocot leaves Parallel veins Ficus Other angiosperms: ring of bundles Monocots: scattered bundles Acorus Sister group of all other monocots ALISMATALES: second line Alismataceae Sagittaria Hydrocharitaceae Vallisneria Hydrilla Alismatales: “sea grasses”: marine monocots Zosteraceae Zostera (eelgrass) Spirodela and Wolffia (Araceae): duckweeds ARECACEAE = Palms Palm stem Cordyline Poaceae GRASSES Oryza (rice) Habenaria ORCHIDACEAE Stanhopea Phalaenopsis Unisexual flowers? Loss of 2o growth Parallel veins Monosulcate Loss 2o growth Tricolpate Cretaceous leaf & pollen sequence (Potomac Formation, Maryland & Virginia) TRICOLPATE pollen: synapomorphy of EUDICOTS STAGES Cenomanian LATE CRETACEOUS EARLY CRETACEOUS 98 MY Albian tricolpate Aptian 125 MY Barremian monosulcate Archaefructus NE China Ancient eudicot lines Platanus sycamore Early Cretaceous fossil leaves Nelumbo lotus tricolpate Proteaceae Ancient eudicot lines Platanus sycamore Nelumbo lotus tricolpate Eschscholzia: California poppy Our state flower! Rosidae Eudicots Pentapetalae Asteridae ROSIDAE many have compound leaves ASTERIDAE most have fused petals Rosaceae Solanaceae Plantaginaceae Fabaceae FABACEAE: Legumes Not a legume Nitrogen fixers Fabaceae FAGALES: shift to wind pollination in temperate trees Quercus Betula Carya male female Asteraceae = Composites Helianthus SANTALALES: trend to parasitism Nuytsia Arceuthobium mistletoe haustorium SANTALALES: trend to parasitism Nuytsia Arceuthobium mistletoe haustorium R. keithii Rafflesia R. cantleyii Euphorbiaceae (Mallotus) Droseraceae INSECTIVOROUS PLANTS Nepenthes Drosera Dionaea Sarraceniaceae Darlingtonia INSECTIVOROUS PLANTS Nepenthes ...
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This note was uploaded on 04/19/2011 for the course BIOLOGY BIS 2C taught by Professor Doyle during the Fall '10 term at UC Davis.

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