Bis2CF10.Lecture22

Bis2CF10.Lecture22 - Lecture 22 INTRODUCTION TO FUNGI...

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Unformatted text preview: Lecture 22 INTRODUCTION TO FUNGI Mycology = study of fungi Last: angiosperm diversity & evolution Place of fungi in ecosystems, Tree of Life Aquatic fungi: “chytrids” Early terrestrial lines: “zygomycetes” Next: Dikarya (ascomycetes, basidiomycetes) NASA Blue Marble CO2 + H2O --> (CH2O) + O2: plants (producers) CO2 + H2O <-- (CH2O) + O2: animals, fungi, bacteria Consumers and decomposers Saprobes: live on dead organic matter Plant fungal pathogens LICHENS Fermentation by yeasts Tip growth of hypha Hyphae - make up mycelium Chitin Hyphae - make up mycelium Absorptive heterotrophy Smaller diameter means higher surface:volume ratio 1/2 surface, 1/4 volume surface:volume = 2x coenocytic Chitin Hyphae - make up mycelium septate septum Dikarya coenocytic Yeasts: secondarily unicellular fungi Hyphae - make up mycelium septate septum Dikarya Ophisthokonts Chromalveolates Plantae Excavates Rhizaria Opisthokonts UNIKONTS Amoebozoans Opisthokont = behind + pole (to push a boat) Absorptive heterotrophy Chitin walls “chytrids” paraphyletic! paraphyletic! Loss of motile cells Terrestrial form mycorrhizae Septate hyphae Dikaryotic stage Absorptive heterotrophy Chitin walls “chytrids” paraphyletic! paraphyletic! Loss of motile cells Terrestrial form mycorrhizae Dikarya Septate hyphae Dikaryotic stage “Chytridiomycota” (chytrids) rhizoids sporangium zoospores pine pollen “Chytridiomycota” (chytrids) rhizoids sporangium zoospores Chytriomyces parasitic on alga: zoospore release Toko Mori, UBC Chytridiomycosis in frogs (caused by Batrachochytrium) “Chytridiomycota” (chytrids) zoospores Alternation of generations in Allomyces Absorptive heterotrophy Chitin walls “chytrids” alternation of generations? paraphyletic! paraphyletic! Loss of motile cells Terrestrial form mycorrhizae Septate hyphae Dikaryotic stage Oomycota “water molds” Not fungi, stramenopiles! Downy mildew Absorptive heterotrophy Chitin walls alternation of generations? paraphyletic! Rhizopus paraphyletic! Loss of motile cells Terrestrial form mycorrhizae Dikarya Septate hyphae Dikaryotic stage Absorptive heterotrophy Chitin walls alternation of generations? paraphyletic! paraphyletic! Loss of motile cells Terrestrial form mycorrhizae Dikarya Septate hyphae Dikaryotic stage VESICULAR-ARBUSCULAR MYCORRHIZAE Vesicle Arbuscule Liverwort and symbiotic fungus (mycorrhizae) Rhynie Chert Early Devonian, Scotland: 400 MY “Rhyniophytes” Thin section of chert (SiO2, silica) sporangia aerial stems horizontal creeping stems = rhizomes Taylor et al. 1995 - mycorrhizal fungi in Rhynie Chert Hyphae, vesicles, arbuscules Absorptive heterotrophy Chitin walls Sporangium with rhizoids and chitinous wall Haploid life cycle zoospore Allomyces: alternation of generations zygosporangium alternation of generations? paraphyletic! paraphyletic! Loss of motile cells Terrestrial form mycorrhizae Dikarya Septate hyphae Dikaryotic stage ...
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