The Crusades - Islamic World 1095 Judaism Western Wall of...

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Islamic World 1095
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Western Wall of the Second Temple Temple Mount, Jerusalem (destroyed 70 AD) Original Layout Judaism
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Christianity Church of the Holy Sepulchre Aedicule Tomb of Christ
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Islam Dome of the Rock Rock of Moriah Foundation Stone
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Holy Places
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Political Background Pope Urban II (1095) 1)  Reconquista Six contributing factors 2) Church Schism of 1054 3) Investiture Contest 4) Civil War in France 5) Increase in popular piety 6) Seljuk Turks Battle of Manzikert (1071 ) Byzantine Emperor Alexius appealed for help
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Seljuk Turks
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The First Crusade (1096–1099) Council of Clermont (1095) Liberation of the Eastern Church Departure date: August 1096 ncredible response due to social, economic, and religious easons. Religious reasons: penance indulgence pilgrimage No mention made of Jerusalem
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Crusader Cross “Taking the Cross” Crucesignati “those signed by the cross”
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Three “waves” 1) Peasant’s Crusade  Peter the Hermit Food supply crisis Annihilated in Asia Minor 2) Germans and some French Jewish Pogroms along the Rhine 3) Powerful French Nobles Bohemund of Taranto Adhemar, Bishop of le Puy
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Crusade Routes
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Arrival in Constantinople What did Emperor Alexius expect? The Crusaders needed the Byzantines to transfer them Across the Bosphorus into Asia Minor. Alexius forced the leaders to take an oath: Homage and fealty to him A small mercenary army, not tens of thousands  of “armed pilgrims” All former Byzantine land be returned to the emperor Crusaders assembled outside of Nicaea in April 1097 as one large army.
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Christian Victories in 1098 Edessa (February 1098) Provided Crusaders with a power base Broke oath to Alexius Antioch (June 1098) 7-month siege by Bohemund Discovery of the Holy Lance
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Fall of Jerusalem 14 July 1099 Siege began on 7 June 1099 Godfrey of Bouillon chosen as first Christian “ruler” of Jerusalem Felt he could not accept the title of king where Jesus had been crucified Baldwin of Boulonge, his successor, was the first king of Jerusalem (1100–1118) Godfrey’s sword in the Church of the Holy Sepulchre
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This note was uploaded on 04/18/2011 for the course MDST 202 taught by Professor Hamonic during the Spring '10 term at University of Tennessee.

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The Crusades - Islamic World 1095 Judaism Western Wall of...

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