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hydraulic fracture lab - PGE 3lll Iahttd-Hyttraulic...

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Unformatted text preview: PGE 3lll Iahttd-Hyttraulic Fracturh‘ig Exercise 1 - Prompt Dm’ Proppant' 15 the material that is lefi to fill the hydraulic fracture after it is pumped. It is trapped by the ciosing fracture, between the 2 sides of the flashes, and 15 held under stress proportional to the earth stress (Slum). It turns out the permeability of the proppant varies with the stress, partly because higher stress compacts the proppant into closer packing and partly because higher stress can crush the proppant. finishing generates fines, and these plug up the pore throats in the hydraulic flame. The engineering a5pect of proppant dissign is determining the closure stress on the proppant and deciding whether it is worth spending the extra money to pump stronger proppant. For instance, Brady sand, quarried at the smfaee near Brady, Texas, costs approximately 3|}. 1 Mb. Bauxite, which is much stronger and has better permeability under stress, costs about 5] .flflt'lh. So if you can get away with it, you would prefer to use sand because of the east. To design your proppant, you need to know the closure stress acting on the proppant, and you need to know how important the proppant pmmeahility is to the performance of your hydraulic fracture. Stress and Prop-pant Permeability hnagine three different reservoirs atdiii‘erent depths. It" we know the earth stress, we can caiculate the stress on the pmppant (called eloswe stress in the propth charts}, and find the permeability. Fill out the table below assuming you are using 2W4!) pruppant size. The units for permeability oftlte proppam are Darcies {I3}. Formation permeahiiity in fomtations requiring hydraulic fi‘acturing are usually reported in milli-Darcitts (Ind). "- - —_--m fi--_ i000 .. Mesh sins for proppant correspond to -- diameterof the proppant grains. The higher the mesh size, the smallerthe preppant diameter. A NEW mesh size tanppant means all the grains that passed through the 2i] mesh and were trapped by the 4D mesh The mesh size openings in millimeters are listed below. The opening size should he roughly considered the diameter of the smallest : ‘ns that would he ag- - u h the mesh. _---_I_I“- turn I only asked for 29MB data, but how does proppent size effect proppant permeability? line, can adie- J6we grah- Gise‘he lame its, @‘imfie‘fll “if... FEE 3'31 lab #4' - Hydraulic Fmdufing In the Figure above, you see a square drainagearea (efdimenaien 2R.c by 2m} in map View with a-Wellbore in the maidle, a fi'aeture with mental lengmefEL. Getting amend the Maire-Sitar: pint What happens to theJIL when you increase RC? Shaman QC Nina-yea 1/ I 1953' ‘ha (aw? $ mmfim gimmfmfifi " Ina-tasks 195.5% M19335 1/3; 40¢ EC 710%. Howem: you get greaterfracterelengxh in a giVen fiaemre treatm Duh-«P a. EDPSSEK‘ ‘Pfaci-mfé fiemfi, mH‘k Mira. flaw a were some. Whax earn 3am die in improve yen: RC far a-given fiacture u'eatment? YER “99$ *5 etxfiw Mbe N5“? P109953: of “SEQ—SQ. We Gee. wré+\. Veg. W EACV'EQSQ. '90:; waHx \Qf ufiNflXxi‘ .01" \JI‘SCfiI—‘r‘i Quidjwu‘cxx CV Cs CL w 9r “RM ) til-“é u-‘M PMS SoxA t1" Migxwf C‘Gntefli'cfii‘m (MEU‘IEA In. \EE’ESZ‘L‘E“) "+5 kegEana‘Emc WW 1 PER 30] Lab #4 - Hydmflio Fl'actm‘ing Computing an E'xamlilo E) South Texas tight sandstone [Frio Formation) ~ Ammo :ho following parameters: kmmfu-m “1d w=fl.l inohoa depth, FIEWU ft The Frio isoprettyhaiflrock, so itis hordfogotaroal fatfifiootmo. Aproppod-fi-aotmo- Width of 11.1 inches is typical inhard rook. Find the most oo'st-ofl‘ootivo motto-o design strategy choosing fi-om the following opiioos: Pm'ppant -- Bauxite or Brady Sand {use :11: pro-want pormoahiiity you determined :inoxmioo I for this; depth} Fraotmo longth— ohoooo 'fi-om {1.1 to LII} times tho reservoir radius- (thai moans you'ncad to-mhiato-Jflh four 4 came} Ag?%x"0’0m$r+h 3km: P5; Bamie, 10-— 50% M; k: 36 b J Mini} (ac *.~ “noggin!“ 5:3; cLiPeiJl" if)“: 4‘" (50.45,) h Emmfiomtm :5 My 1L Shae? inflows-mi DH»: ‘oowg a, geiwbu‘té- 5%“ we. 1/101: Opgqi—a Larva {IT-HM FEB 30: L_Bh.#4 ~ Hydrauflr. PM 2} Gulf Inf Mexien fiaeepaak kmmi1=l [H] Ind w=1 inefie's depth, Elihflflfl ft The formations in the GulfofMei-ziee are more typically pearly cemented or uneenselidased sands (barely even sandstone). The reek is very suit and easy tn deform, so hydraulic fractures are more typically fat (large opening). Find the must cost-effective fine-hare design mategy choosing Pram the foliewhigepfiens: Pmppans — Bauxite er Brady Sendfisa die pmppant pefineahility yen determined in exereise l for this depth) Fmeture length — cheese finm Ill] to Li} times the reservnir radius {1mm youneedtn mi 1e Jun cages) . bu.- _ ESZBMMOHQWO FEE 3‘” Lat-#4 - Hydmfic‘ Framing 9<VEKY TMib/QTAW 3) Basal on your teams, come up with some general design rules- with regard in fi'acmre length-am pmppaat penncahiljtg ('me parameters m- ean contra] in uur frat. desigm} for high gaunt-ability vmus low pmnéahility furrnmiohs. Recngnize that the more pmppant gnu pm, the. mar: Wynn: fincnn'e'uuhnmt will he, 5h you can-"fins“: say pinup thefathast, lungest imam with flmhighgst perma‘ahility proppam even; time. You need tn put yhmresaurceawhm theywifl comnflacmost. [flak WW 6yw+¢of¥ Gm 1.111% ‘Fflmnh‘mfi M98“ P‘DT‘M WFP‘A' L5“) PQV‘M. L‘MS (BL-ILNY ‘Qfac, w'LH" $01” Mkd‘b $0an \cbu) pew... PM??? It] ...
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