OCHEM_I_UNIT_12-1 - OCHEMIUNIT12:ALCOHOLS,PHENOLS,ETHERS EPOXIDES,THIOLS,ANDSULFIDES A. 1.INTRODUCTION .Thegeneral ROH Where R is an alkyl group Ex

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OCHEM I UNIT 12: ALCOHOLS, PHENOLS, ETHERS,  EPOXIDES, THIOLS, AND SULFIDES A. GENERAL STRUCTURE OF ALCOHOLS                                             1. INTRODUCTION An alcohol is a compound that contains an  –OH   group. The general  structure of an alcohol is: R OH Where R is an alkyl group. Ex: Phenols have the general structure: OH Ex:   Enols have the general structure:                   OH 1
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                                                                                                                R C CH 2 Ex: Note: Alcohols can be thought as derivatives of water:  H OH 2. CLASSIFICATION OF ALCOHOLS i. Introduction There are 3 classes of alcohols: 1 o , 2 o , 3 o . ii. Primary alcohols: Have 2 H atoms on C bearing OH                                         R           H C ▬ ▬ OH 1 alcohol                                        H Ex: iii. Secondary alcohols: Have one H atom on C bearing OH        R           R C ▬ ▬ OH 2 alcohol                                        H Ex: 2
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iv. Tertiary alcohols: Have no H atoms on C bearing OH                 R           R C OH 3 alcohol                                        R Ex : B. NOMENCLATURE OF ALCOHOLS 1. IUPAC NAMES Names of alcohols end in ol . They are named as alkan ol . Ex: CH 3 CH 2 OH ethanol Note: in naming alcohols, the parent chain is the longest carbon chain that contains the –OH group. Carbons in the parent chain are numbered from the end nearest the C bearing the OH group. Ex: Read pages 316 – 318 Do all problems 2. COMMON NAMES 3
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Alcohols can be also named as alkyl alcohols. Ex: CH 3 CH 2 OH Ethyl alcohol CH 3 OH Methyl alcohol H 2 Ck CHCH 2 OH Allyl alcohol (IUPAC: 2-propen-1-ol) HO CH 2 CH 2 OH Ethylene glycol (IUPAC: 1, 2 -  Ethanediol)  HO CH CHCH 2 OH glycerol                         OH 3. NAMING PHENOLS In naming phenols, the parent name is  phenol . Ex: C. PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF ALCOHOLS 1. BONDING IN ALCOHOLS 4
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O H R 109 o Alcohols are OH containing polar substances. Therefore, they have strong  intermolecular bonds (VWF, DD, H bonds). 2. BP AND MP Alcohols have elevated BP and MP due the formation of H bonds between  their molecules.
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This note was uploaded on 04/19/2011 for the course CHEMISTRY 2423 taught by Professor Kay during the Spring '08 term at Dallas Colleges.

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OCHEM_I_UNIT_12-1 - OCHEMIUNIT12:ALCOHOLS,PHENOLS,ETHERS EPOXIDES,THIOLS,ANDSULFIDES A. 1.INTRODUCTION .Thegeneral ROH Where R is an alkyl group Ex

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