OCHEM_UNIT_4 - OCHEMUNIT4:INTRODUCTIONTOORGANIC COMPOUNDS

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OCHEM UNIT 4: INTRODUCTION TO ORGANIC  COMPOUNDS A. INTRODUCTION TO HYDROCARBONS 1. DEFINITION A hydrocarbon is an organic compound containing only H and C atoms. Ex:  2. CLASSES OF HYDROCARBONS There are 3 major classes of hydrocarbons based on the carbon-carbon bond.  See Table 3.1 page 85 . -saturated hydrocarbons  contain only single carbon-carbon  bonds. In a saturated hydrocarbon, there are no multiple bonds  (no double or triple bonds). -unsaturated hydrocarbons  contain at least one  multiple  bond  (a triple bond or a double bond or both). - aromatic hydrocarbons  are a special class of unsaturated ring  compounds related to benzene. 3. SATURATED HYDROCARBONS -contain only C-C single bonds. In other words, all carbon atoms are sp hybridized in a saturated hydrocarbon. Ex: 1
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There are 2 types of saturated hydrocarbons: -the alkanes or  aliphatic hydrocarbons  = acyclic =  paraffins . -cycloalkanes = cyclic. 4. UNSATURATED HYDROCARBONS -contain at least one C-C multiple bond. Ex: There are 3 types of unsaturated hydrocarbons: -alkenes  = acyclic compounds that contain at least one C-C double  bond. Ex: -cycloalkenes  = cyclic compounds that contain a C-C double bond. Ex: -alkynes  = acyclic compounds that contain at least a C-C triple bond. Ex: 5. AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS 2
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This is a special class of unsaturated  cyclic compounds  related to the  structure of benzene. Ex: 6. CLASSES OF HYDROCARBONS: A SUMMARY (contain only C and H atoms) SATURATED HYDROCARBONS UNSATURATED HYDROCARBONS (contain only C-C single bonds) (contain at least one C-C multiple bond) CYCLOAKENES HYDROCARBONS AROMATICS (benzenelike compounds) ALKANES (contain double bonds) (Cyclic) CYCLOALKANES ALKENES ALKYNES (contain triple bonds) (Acyclic) Note: alcohols, ethers, carboxylic acids, ketones, aldehydes, etc. are 
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OCHEM_UNIT_4 - OCHEMUNIT4:INTRODUCTIONTOORGANIC COMPOUNDS

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