OCHEM_UNIT_5 - OCHEMUNIT5:ALKANESANDCYCLOALKANES

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OCHEM UNIT 5: ALKANES AND CYCLOALKANES A. GENERAL STRUCTURE OF THE ALKANES 1. DEFINITION alkanes = paraffins      = aliphatic hydrocarbons     = saturated hydrocarbons (saturated with respect to H)     = contain only C C single bonds (no double or triple bonds)     = contain only sp 3  hybridized carbons Ex: C 3 H 8 Read page 115. 2. GENERAL MOLECULAR FORMULA OF ALKANES   C n H 2n+2 n = number of carbon atoms in molecule. Note: -have a homologous series. Ex:  n = 1 n = 2 1
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n = 6 n = 20 Read pages 115 -118 Do Problem 4.1 page 116 . 3. STRAIGHT CHAIN – BRANCHED ALKANES a. Straight Chain Alkanes - normal alkanes - unbranched alkanes Ex: C 4 H 10 b. Branched Alkanes -have  carbon group(s)  (or substituents) attached to  parent chain  ( longest  continuous carbon chain in molecule). Ex:   C 5 H 12           CH 3 CH 2 CHCH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 3 2
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                                 CH 3 B. NAMING ALKANES 1. NOMENCLATURE Nomenclature is the art of naming chemical substances. IUPAC = International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry, based in  Geneva Switzerland.   Sets rules for naming chemical compounds. Name =  Prefix  - Parent  –  Suffix Ex: C 4 H 10 but  - an  –  e IUPAC: Names of all  saturated  hydrocarbons end in   - ane  as in alkanes. 2. NAMING NORMAL (STRAIGHT-CHAIN) ALKANES -Named according to the number of carbons in compound. #carbons Prefix Name Molecular formula Condensed formula 3
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      1 meth meth - an - e CH 4 CH 4       2 eth       3 prop but pent hex hept oct non dec       20 eicos Note: Please, become familiar with all the prefixes! Table 4.1 page 118. 3. NAMING BRANCHED (OR SUBSTITUTED) ALKANES a. Substituents or Groups = carbon groups attached to the  main chain  or  parent chain. Ex:  CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 CHCH 3                                                                                                      CH 3 b. Alkyl Groups = saturated substituents that contain only C and H atoms.  = derive from the alkanes. = names end in  –yl 4
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General formula: C n H 2n+1 Ex:  c. Common Alkyl Groups Alkyl group Name Abbreviation meth yl Me eth yl Et alkane Name derived alkyl group name CH 4 methane CH 3 meth –yl CH 3 CH 3 Ethane CH 3 CH 2 Eth –yl 5
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prop yl Pr isoprop yl i-Pr but yl Bu isobut yl i-Bu tert-but yl (tertiary but yl ) t-Bu Secondary but yl (Sec-but yl ) Sec-Bu neopent yl n-Pent Read page 121. d. Halogen Substituents
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OCHEM_UNIT_5 - OCHEMUNIT5:ALKANESANDCYCLOALKANES

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