OCHEM_UNIT_8 - OCHEMUNIT8:ANOVERVIEWOFORGANIC...

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OCHEM UNIT 8: AN OVERVIEW OF ORGANIC  CHEMICAL REACTIONS A. WRITING CHEMICAL EQUATIONS IN OCHEM 1. ONE-STEP REACTIONS   catalyst (solvent) Products Reactants Ex:  C C H H H H H 2 + Pt C C H H H H H H 2. MULTISTEP REACTIONS 1. catalyst 1 2. catalyst 2 Products Reactants Ex: CH 3 CH 2 OH 1. NaH 2. CH 3 Cl CH 3 CH 2 OCH 3 B. TYPES OF CHEMICAL REACTIONS IN OCHEM 1. INTRODUCTION There are 4 major types of organic reactions: -Addition reactions -Elimination reactions -Substitution reactions 1
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-Rearrangement reactions Read pages 199 – 202. 2. ADDITION REACTIONS General reaction: C C X - Y + C C Y X catalyst Ex: H H H H H H H H C C H - H + C C H H Pt 3. SUBSTITUTION REACTIONS General reaction + C Z Y C Y + Z + C Z Y + Z O C Y O or Ex: 2
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+ C Br I - C I + Br - + C Cl CN - + Cl - O C CN O or H H H H H H H H 4. ELIMINATION REACTIONS General reaction + C C Y X Reagent C C Y X + Ex: + H H H C C H Br H CH 3 CH 3 H H C C Br H + OH - 5. REARRANGEMENT REACTIONS: INTERNAL  REORGANIZATION Ex:  Tautomerization 3
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H H H O CH 3 C C enol O CH 3 C CH3 ketone tautomers Do problem 6.1 page 202. C. MECHANISMS OF CHEMICAL REACTIONS 1. INTRODUCTION mechanism  tells about  how  a reaction takes place: one step or multi step. a. One-step Mechanism Reactants  Products b. Multi-step Mechanism Reactants  Intermediates Products 2. REACTION MECHANISM a. Introduction Reactants  Products 4
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b. Bond Breaking (Cleavage) Bond breaking is an  endothermic  process. There are  2 ways  of breaking a  covalent bond: - homolytic  (symmetrical) =  homolysis - heterolytic  (unsymmetrical) =  heterolysis i. Symmetrical or Homolytic Bond Breaking (or  Cleavage): Homolysis In this kind of bond breaking,  2 free radicals are produced. General Reaction: A   A  +  B Ex: + Cl Cl h ν Cl Cl Note: radicals are very reactive. 5
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ii. Unsymmetrical or Heterolytic Bond Breaking (or  Cleavage): Heterolysis In this kind of bond breaking,  2 ions are produced. General Reaction: A   A +  +  : B - Ex: + H Cl H Cl b. Bond Forming Bond forming  is an  exothermic  process. There are  2 ways  of forming a  covalent bond: - homogenic  (symmetrical) - heterogenic  (unsymmetrical) i. Symmetrical or Homogenic Bond Forming In this kind of bond forming,  2 free radicals combine to give  products. General Reaction: 6
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A  +  B     A   B Ex: + H H H H Note: a reaction that involves free radicals is called a radical reaction.   ii. Unsymmetrical or Heterogenic Bond Forming In this kind of bond forming,  2 ions combine to give products. General Reaction:
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This note was uploaded on 04/19/2011 for the course CHEMISTRY 2423 taught by Professor Kay during the Spring '08 term at Dallas Colleges.

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OCHEM_UNIT_8 - OCHEMUNIT8:ANOVERVIEWOFORGANIC...

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