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Unformatted text preview: Final Review outline Sue, Stanley and Okazaki, Sumie. Asian-American Educational Achievements: A Phenomenon in Search of an Explanation. Pg. 691-704. • Purpose of study: To examine the achievements of Asian Americans and two of the major explanations that have been proposed for the achievements of Asian Americans o Against the biological approach that AA are smarter • 4 points to keep in mind when reviewing this research: o Asian Americans represent heterogeneous group with marked within- and between-group variations in a number of characteristics o Research findings have not been able to shed much light on factors that account for the achievement levels o Single explanations cannot adequately account for the observed performance patterns o The concept of relative functionalism also considers the problems of achieving in non- educational types of endeavors • Achievement levels of Asian American students: Asian and Pacific-Islander Americans (APIAs) exceed the national average for high school and college graduates o Evidence: Higher high school graduation rates Higher college enrollment Higher admission rates to University of California campuses Higher college graduation rates Better high school GPAs and math SAT scores • Explanations for achievement patterns: o Socioeconomic status: It is thought that perhaps APIAs are more “advantaged” in terms of socioeconomic standing and provide their children with special resources and opportunities However, the median parental income of APIAs was lower than that of Whites, $25,400 and $32,900 respectively; yet, APIAs were found to have higher high school grades and math SAT scores than Whites o Relative functionalism: reason for AA succeeding is the opportunity they have to do so o Heredity: To determine whether APIAs are innately superior to Whites in intelligence, it is necessary to demonstrate that APIAs are higher not only in educational attainments, but also in intelligence and cognitive functioning Unfortunately, few studies have compared these groups on intellectual measures • Sowell study (1978) concluded that Chinese and Japanese Americans equal or exceed the national average. But, his study was limited by fact that samples were small and estimates were based on performance rather than verbal tests • Lynn study (1977) found that at every age level, Japanese children outperformed Americans. But there are many criticisms of Lynn’s study, including fact that Lynn failed to take into account the fact that Japanese samples tended to have higher socioeconomic standing and higher representation of urban rather than rural children than did American samples • Stevenson (1980s) found that there were no general differences in cognitive functioning between APIA and American samples, and superiority of APIAs in math was not attributable to higher levels of cognitive functioning Hypothesis that APIAs are genetically superior in intelligence would appear to be refuted by empirical data...
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- Fall '08