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1 - Stereotypes

1 - Stereotypes - Asian American Studies 3 Psychosocial...

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Unformatted text preview: Asian American Studies 3 Psychosocial Perspectives of Asian Americans Key Key Concepts Diversity Heterogeneity of people in society based on many different characteristics. In practice, the characteristics often include ethnicity, race, gender, sexual orientation, disability, age, and religion. Culture The behavior patterns, symbols, institutions, attitudes, values, and human products of a group or society. Ethnicity A religious, racial, national, or cultural group. People sharing a common and distinctive racial, national, religious, linguistic, social, or cultural heritage and having a social-psychological sense of "peoplehood." socialRace Groupings of people on the basis of actual or presumed biological differences from others. Race is often used as a social psychological concept. Minority Group Status One’s position or status as a result of being a member of a minority group. 1 Paul Pedersen Who Are Asian Americans (SG Report) n n n n n Approximately 4% of the U.S. population – over 11 million people – identify themselves as Asian Americans or Pacific Islanders (AA/PIs). The AA/PI population is expected to double in the next 25 years. About 54% of AA/PIs live in western States, especially California and Hawaii. 18% live in the Northeast, 17% in the South, and 11% in the Midwest. The AA/PI category is extremely diverse, with about 43 different ethnic subgroups. While the majority of AA/PIs were born outside of the U.S., a large proportion of Chinese and Japanese Americans are 4th and 5th generation Americans. Since the mid-1960s, the midAA/PI population has grown rapidly with high rates of immigration from China, India, the Philippines, Korea, Vietnam, and Southeast Asia. Most Pacific Islanders are not immigrants, but are descendants of the original inhabitants of land taken over by the United States – Hawaii, Tonga, Guam, American Samoa, the Northern Mariana Islands, the Marshall Islands, the Caroline Islands, and Palau. AA/PIs speak over 100 languages and dialects, and about 35% live in households where there is limited English proficiency in those over age 13. Some subgroups have more limited English proficiency than others: 61% of Hmong-, 56% of Cambodian-, 52% of HmongCambodianLaotianLaotian-, 44% of Vietnamese-, 41% of Korean-, and 40% of Chinese-American households VietnameseKoreanChineseare linguistically isolated. There is a range of educational attainment in the AA/PI population. In 2000, 44% of Asian American adults had a college or professional degree compared to 28% of white Americans. 58% of South Asian Americans (from India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Sri Lanka) fell into this group. In contrast, in 1990 only 12% of Hawaiians and 10% of other Pacific Islanders had completed college, and 2 out of 3 Cambodian-, Hmong-, and Cambodian- HmongLaotianLaotian-American adults had not completed high school. The average family income for AA/PIs is higher than the national average. However, AA/PIs still have a lower per capita income and higher rate of poverty than non-Hispanic nonwhite Americans. In 2000, about 11% of the whole AA/PI group was living in poverty, compared to 8% of all Americans. Among subgroups, poverty rates ranged from a low for Filipino Americans to a high for Hmong Americans. 2 Stereotyping Issues n n n n n What are they? Definition Characteristics of stereotypes Do they have kernels of truth? Research on stereotypes n n Difficulties in ascertaining stereotypes Group differences Discomfort--person Discomfort--person being stereotyped Used as slurs to degrade B. Yamashita & U.S. Marines Officers Candidate School High school student vs. teachers and students Filipino American accountant in communications firm Korean American in U.S. Housing & Urban Development n Consequences of stereotyping n n n Examples n n n n n Stereotype Threat Stereotypes n Chinese: quiet, family oriented; deferent; achievement oriented; cheapskates; upwardly mobile; gamblers; Kung Fu experts; heavily represented in laundry, grocery and restaurant work; males -males-passive, quiet, agreeable, bookworms, carry calculators; females --exotic, sexy, domestic, dragon lady, females--exotic, flat chested South Asians: philosophical; like hot curry food, wear turbans, own hotels, high tech Hawaiians: happy -go-lucky; musical; naïve; family oriented; lazy; obese; slow moving happy-goJapanese: quiet; sly; shrewd; initiative; industrious; ambitious; family oriented; well educated; upwardly mobile; assimilated; karate experts; heavily represented as gardeners, professionals, agricultural businessmen; males--passive, quiet, agreeable, sexist, socially inept; females--exotic, males--passive, females--exotic, sexy, domestic Koreans: assertive; hot tempered; hard drinkers; martial arts experts; outspoken; untrustworthy; male oriented; family oriented; upwardly mobile; loyal; aggressive; determined Pilipinos: gentle; violent and hot tempered; family oriented; sexual; males seek white females; males are macho; good dancers; flashy dressers; manual laborers; upwardly mobile; women --exotic, women--exotic, beautiful Samoans: aggressive, easily provoked; family oriented; illiterate; related to one another; athletic; obese, slow moving; loud; quiet Vietnamese, Laotians, & Cambodians: family oriented; deferent; industrious; hard working; upwardly mobile, unfairly competitive; clannish n n n n n n n 3 Definition of Stereotypes n A stereotype is a positive or negative set of beliefs held by an individual about the characteristics of a group of people. It varies in its accuracy, the extent to which it captures the degree to which the stereotyped group members possess these traits, and the extent to which the set of beliefs is shared by others Stereotype Stereotype Research Katz & Braly (1933) Took 84 adjectives and had 100 students select those traits they believed were most characteristic of: (White) Americans, Chinese, English, Germans, Irish, Italians, Japanese, Jews, “Negroes”, and Turks n Americans = industrious, intelligent, materialistic, ambitious, and progressive African Americans = superstitious, lazy, happy-go-lucky, happy-goignorant, and musical Jews = Shrewd, mercenary, industrious, and intelligent 4 Do People Tell Us What Their Stereotypes Are? 30 white males rating Americans 1. Questionnaire 2. bogus 30 white males rating African Americans 3. Questionnaire 4. Bogus Negativity Rating 1 = 3, sometimes more negative 4>3 4>2 Asians Asians are Passive? Ayabe - quiet established so wanted to discover if due to inability to physically speak loudly. So tested it out in room. told to speak normal and loud as can. loud prof < W< normal coed < prof < JA< coed < No difference in normal between race, but lower w/ prof than coed. In loud as can, JA inhibited more than caucasian. 5 The Meaning of Stereotypes 1. It may refer to a trait possessed by all members of a group. For instance, all members of Group A need oxygen to survive. In personality research, one rarely finds a trait possessed by all members of a group; moreover, if such a trait is found, it usually exists in all other groups as well, rendering the statement trivial as a personality description in cultural comparisons. 2. The statement may be used to imply a comparison: Group A possesses characteristic X to a greater extent than Group B does. The problem is that characteristic X may be a low basebase-rate phenomenon for both groups. (That is, the vast majority of members of Group A may not have X, but X occurs more frequently in Group A than in Group B.) It may also mean that the majority of both groups have the characteristics but Group A has it more than Group B. Following Is A List Of Possible Reasons That Stereotyping Is A Problem: n n n n n n n n n n n Stereotypes are factually incorrect. Stereotypes are illogical in origin. Stereotypes are based on prejudice. Those who hold stereotypes are irrationally resistant to new information that contradicts the stereotypes. Stereotypes exaggerate group differences. Stereotypes are ethnocentric. Stereotypes imply genetic origins of group differences. Stereotypes underestimate outgroup variability. Stereotypes lead people to ignore individual differences. Stereotypes lead to biased perceptions of persons. Stereotypes create self-filling prophesies. self- 6 In the Barracks Some Examples (1) Speaking to Mr. Yamashita in Japanese in the presence of other OCS staff and candidates, despite the fact that Mr. Yamashita's first and primary language is English; (2) Stating in the presence of the platoon that during World War II Mr. Yamashita's "Japanese ass" had been whipped; (3) Addressing Mr. Yamashita as "Kawasaki Yamaha Yamashita" in the presence of other candidates; (4) Stating in the presence of the entire company that "You can speak English? We don't want your kind around here, go back to your country"; (5) Calling Mr. Yamashita "Kamakaze Man" for a period of a week, in the presence of others. 7 Psychology’s Position The American Psychological Association (1991) has summarized research on the effects of stereotyping by noting that "...research indicates that stereotyping is part of the normal psychological process of categorization that under pertinent conditions can lead to inaccurate generalizations about individuals often transformed into discriminatory behavior" (p. 1062). It further stated that "...a category can lead to oversimplification and distortion, maximizing perceived differences between social groups and minimizing differences within them....Once an individual is classified as a member of a social group, perceptions of that group's average or reputed characteristics and perception of behavior based on those characteristics, are readily relied on by those doing the classifying. It then becomes more difficult for the classifier to respond to the other person's own particular characteristics, making accurate, differentiated, and unique impressions less likely. In such instances, people tend to perceive members of the other group as all alike or to expect them to be all alike, which they never are...Whether realized or not, stereotypic beliefs create expectations about a person...and lead to distorted judgements about behavior...stereotypic attributes bias the evaluations of...work performance....normative expectations can result in detrimental evaluations" (p. 1066). Bruce Bruce Yamashita Case Use of stereotypes by instructors Possible biasing effect or reflection of bias Creation of a norm Norm supported by authority Observations by candidates of instructors’ stereotypes Creation of biased atmosphere Biasing evaluations Instructors’ awareness of negative evaluations of other candidates Reinforcement of original evaluations of the instructors Increased negative evaluations Instructors’ increased scrutiny and derogation of Mr. Yamashita Observations by other candidates of increased scrutiny and derogation Increased negative evaluations Making such evaluations known to instructors 8 Prima Facie Evidence Two ways: institutional practices and outcomes. Were practices discriminatory? YES! Is there evidence of differential outcomes? Of five who dropped out, 4 were ethnic in his platoon. Whites given second chances but they not. Note that marines claimed they admit only qualified. Dannemiller & Takeuchi report on statistics. Were minorities disenrolled at a higher rate than whites from his class? Were they disenrolled higher under the command of colonel who was BY commanding officer? Were minorities disenrolled at higher rate than whites in OCS classes not under the command of colonel c? Results: In BY's class (n=143) 60% of ethnics and 28% of whites disenrolled. p< .01.; under colonel c, (n=1,619) 32% of whites and 49% of ethnic disenrolled; p<.0005 or 5 out of 10,000.; for other commanders (n=4986), whites had 34%; ethnics 39%--differences small but sig. 39%--differences p<.02. Overcoming Prejudice Start 10-6-09 (1) the promotion of group norms or local atmosphere that discourage stereotyping, (2) authorities or superiors who prohibit or punish the use of stereotypes, (3) the increase in the heterogeneity in the ethnic or racial composition of the group, (4) equal status contact between members of different racial groups, (5) cooperative (e.g., seeking common goals) rather competitive relationships between members of different groups. 9 1994 Captain Bruce Yamashita U.S. Marine Corps It would have been easier for Bruce Yamashita to remain silent and quietly move on, but that would have been a grave mistake for Bruce and for the entire United States military. --Norman --Norman Mineta, Secretary of Transportation and former Member of Congress, speaking at the commissioning ceremony for Capt. Yamashita 10 Claude Steele Stanford University Race gaps in academic performance n n n n Some statistics Conventional explanations: socioeconomic disadvantage, segregation, and endured discrimination. Are these explanation sufficient? Perhaps, stereotype threat is a chronic feature of these students’ schooling environments. 11 Stereotype threat n “From an observer’s standpoint, the situations of a boy and a girl in a math classroom or of a Black student and a White student in any classroom are essentially the same. The teacher is the same; the textbooks are the same; and in better classrooms, these students are treated the same. Is it possible, then, that they could still experience the classroom differently, so differently in fact as to significantly affect their performance and achievement there?” (Steele, 1997, p. 613) Group differences in IQ n n 1515-point IQ gap between Black and White Americans Similar gap appears for minorities in other cultures: n n n n n Maoris in New Zealand, Baraku in Japan, Harijans in India, Oriental Jews in Israel, West Indians in Great Britain, n n including where minority is of same race as majority (Ogbu, 1986, cited by Steele, 1997) Suggests explanation in terms of stereotyping processes rather than genetic differences (Steele, 1997) 12 What is Stereotype Threat? n Stereotype threat is a type of performance anxiety experienced when students realize and are concerned that their performance could prove a general racial stereotype. In the case of SAT scores, low performance on a test of ability could confirm the notion that Blacks are not as smart as whites or that affirmative action was the sole reason a Black student was admitted to a university. (Claude Steele) The Concept of Stereotype Threat http://psych.umb.edu/grdstd/vinai/stereotype.ppt n n n Definition: A disruptive concern, when facing a negative stereotype, that one will verify the stereotype. When allegations of the stereotype are importantly negative, this predicament may be self-threatening enough to have disruptive effects of its own. Consequences n Long-term: internalization of inferiority images or their consequences. n Immediate: the threat of possibly being judged and treated stereotypically, or of possibly self-fulfilling such a stereotype 13 Stereotype threat and identification n Stereotype threat in a given domain (e.g. school) thus threatens self-esteem selfChronic stereotype threat may be reduced by disidentifying with the domain in question n Priming n Activating or sensitizing one’s thoughts or memory to a particular stimulus. 14 Stereotype threat and performance n Participants n n Men and women taking maths tests All strong in maths, saw themselves as strong maths students, saw this as important to self-definition selfParticipants told that test normally showed gender differences (threat) or not (control) n Manipulation of stereotype threat n n n Control condition: scores of women = men Stereotype threat: scores of women < men [Spencer, Steele & Quinn, 1999] Stereotype threat and performance n n Participants n African Americans taking verbal tests Study 1: Told participants test was strongly diagnostic of ability (threat) or non-diagnostic (control) nonStudy 2: Participants stated ‘race’ on demographic questionnaire before test (threat) or not (control) Manipulation of stereotype threat n n n n Control: no race differences in test scores Threat: blacks scored lower than whites [Steele & Aronson, 1995] 15 Stereotype Threat n Can also occur among White males n Math (when compared to AsianAsianAmericans) n Athletics (when compared to AfricanAfricanamericans) Disidenitfication Disidenitfication n n Laboring under such negative stereotypes can "frequently cause school disidentification"-that is, disidentification"Blacks can drop out and/or refuse to internalize subjects they think the majority expects them to fail. This is why we see some Black students re-identify rewith the social aspects of college 16 Asian Americans What about Positive Stereotypes? n We already know that negative stereotypes can undermine performance, but can the same happen for positive stereotypes? Do positive stereotypes have the same “threat in the air” quality that negative stereotypes do? If so, what is the underlying mechanism that undermines performance when under “positive stereotype threat”? n n 17 Previous Studies n n n Not many studies have examined the effect of positive stereotypes Those that have produced mixed findings Different methodologies may have been confounding variable of interest by eliciting other constructs, thus making it difficult to ascertain what really happens under positive stereotype threat Stereotypes and Multiple Identities Not Good at Math Good at Math 18 Shih, Shih, Pittinsky, & Ambady (1999) (1999) Remind Asian-American women of their Asiann n Asian identity (questions about languages spoken, race, etc.) Female identity (questions about co-ed housing) coNeither identity (questions about telephone service) n n Shih et al. (1999) 0.8 Accuracy on math test 0.6 0.4 0.2 Asian Neutral Female 19 Shih, Pittinsky, & Ambady (1999) n n n n AsianAsian-American women perform better on a math test when ethnic identity activated When primed with gender identity, however, they perform worse worse Making ethnic identity salient enhanced performance (positive stereotype) Making gender identity salient hindered performance (negative stereotype) Cheryan & Bodenhausen (2000) n n In contrast to Shih et al. (1999), this study found that priming ethnic salience resulted in diminished ability to concentrate, which in turn led to significantly impaired math performance Their Asian American participants did worse worse, not better, than control 20 Discrepant Findings? n Two things may have accounted for these seemingly discrepant findings (Gabriel, Dhindsa, & Meyer) n n Public vs. Private domains Strength of manipulation Public vs. Private Domains n n Shih et al. primed with questions eliciting ethnic salience via language and family (personal or “private domain” questions) Cheryan et al. instead primed with questions eliciting a more public expectancy of success n n increased obligation to live up to positive stereotype choking under pressure 21 Questions Used Shih et al. (1999) Private Domain (a) What language spoke at home (b) How many generations of their family had lived in America Cheryan et al. (2000) Public Domain (a) “Overall, my race is considered good by others” (b) “I am a worthy member of the racial group I belong to” Summary n n n n Stereotypes are common They are difficult to assess for research Sometimes, kernals of truth but issues comples Stereotypes have effects n n Biasing of individuals Stereotype threat 22 Personal Strategies 1. Watch for conditions that promote stereotyping and prejudice 2. Challenge yourself in terms of awareness and behaviors (actions and speech) 3. Realize “Chink” as bad as “nigger” 4. Some offended by positive as well as negative stereotypes 5. Use experience as outsider or victim of stereotype to understand situation 6. Not a matter of political correctness...
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