4 - AssimAccultASA3Fall2009

4 - AssimAccultASA3Fall2009 - Asian American Studies 3...

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Unformatted text preview: Asian American Studies 3 Psychosocial Perspectives of Asian Americans Three Three Dimensions The Universal dimension is based on the knowledge-base knowledgegenerated by mainstream psychology and the “universal laws” of human behavior that have been identified (e.g., the universal “fight or flight” response in humans to physical threat). The Group dimension has been the domain of both crosscrosscultural psychology as well as ethnic minority psychology and the study of gender differences. The Unique Individual dimension is more often covered by behavioral and existential theories where individual learning histories and personal phenomenology are proposed as critical elements in the understanding of human behavior. Tripartite Development of Personal Development Identity Identity 1 Assimilation Acculturation Process of learning a culture different from the one in which a person was originally raised 1. External: Behavioral in which materials, culture, language, and roles acquired matching dominant one 2. Internal: Acquisition of dominant culture's attitudes and values Assimilation Gradual absorption of a minority by a dominant group. Total merging into one, including genetic amalgamation. Melting pot notion. Ideally, if totally assimilated, no discrimination. Cultural assimilation (acculturation first to occur, while structural assimilation - intermarriage - last to occur) (Gordon) 7 Sequential Steps: 1. Cultural or Behavioral Assimilation (Acculturation) 2. Structural 3. Marital 4. Identificational 5. Attitude Receptional (absence of prejudice) 6. Behavioral Receptional (absence of discrimination) 7. Civic Assimilation (absence of value/power conflict) Key to assimilation (not acculturation) but structural assimilation (entry into cliques, social clubs, churches, etc.) Can show one type without other (war brides - marital but not accult) but usually assimilation leads to acculturation. Acculturation may not lead to assimilation. Factors to Consider 1. Hierarchy and Roles; importance of family Father, older, male dominate Authority, obedience, obligations; 1. Role Structure (Hierarchy) - Egalitarian 2. Duty and Obligation (Revenge movies) 3. Child Obedient: no rights (Russian example) 2. Harmony and Indirect Communications; individualism v. collective Modesty - Confront - Assert; Hsu on shut off fan, biculturalism, Kitano No say what's on mind – China: listen for hidden or indirect messages Repress/Suppress 1. Direct - Indirect (Self -Disclose) (Self2. Polite - Impolite 3. Restraint of Emotional Displays 3. Achievement Orientation; education Good for own sake Success/Prestige Drive Factors to Consider 4. Family Name Family emphasis Loss of Face Individualism 1. Family Oriented - Ego or Self or Individual 2. Shame, Guilt and Loss of Face Shame - others ridicule, criticize so person feels bad Guilt - more internal; self feels bad 5. Acculturation/Racism Culture Conflict ID 6. Diversity Within and Between Groups 7. Minority Status 2 Edited by Foxit Reader Copyright(C) by Foxit Corporation,2005-2009 For Evaluation Only. ss1 Jeanne Tsai Stanford University Models of Cultural Orientation Unidimensional model assumes that one cultural orientation is inversely related to the other (i.e., the more oriented one is to Culture A, the less oriented she is to Culture B) n Bidimensional model assumes that cultural orientations are independent of each other n Model Varies n AmericanAmerican -born Asians have a bidimensional model of cultural orientation OverseasOverseas -born Asian Americans have a unidimensional model of cultural orientation n 3 Edited by Foxit Reader Copyright(C) by Foxit Corporation,2005-2009 For Evaluation Only. Slide 7 ss1 stan sue, 1/20/2003 Examples of Assimiliation/Acculturation Differences n Research Examples n Emotional expression n Alcohol n Love n Sexual aggression n Assertiveness n Bicultural or multiculturalism Tsai’s Affect Valuation Theory (AVT) (Darker (Darker lines indicate stronger relationships) Thicker lines are the ones that apply more Cultural Factors “Ideal Affect” Mood-Producing Behavior Expressive Behavior (Facial and Vocal) “Actual Affect” Temperamental Factors Physiological Arousal Neural Activation Two Views of Culture and Emotions n Emotions (i.e., fleeting episodes of characteristic changes in physiology, subjective experience, and facial expression) are biologically hard-wired, and hardtherefore, similar across cultures. Because emotional practices and rituals vary tremendously across cultures, emotions are culturally constituted, and therefore, differ across cultures. n 4 Actual vs. Ideal Affect Rate how much one actually experiences a number of different affective states n Rate how much one ideally wants to feel ideally those same states. n n valence n arousal (positive vs. negative) (high or low). n Examples: “High arousal positive” states include excitement and enthusiasm; “low arousal positive” states include calm and peacefulness. AVT Propositions n (1) ideal affect differs from actual affect ideal actual (2) cultural factors shape ideal affect more than actual affect, whereas temperamental factors shape actual affect more than ideal affect (3) discrepancies between actual and ideal affect motivate mood -producing behavior (i.e., what moodpeople do to feel good or stop feeling bad). n n Proposition 1 n Across multiple studies with culturally diverse samples (e.g., American, Chinese, English, Korean), participants consistently report wanting to feel more positive and less negative than they actually feel. 5 Proposition 2 n American and Chinese cultures differ in their ideal affect n individualistic cultures (e.g., American culture) encourage their members to influence others influence (i.e., assert personal needs and change others’ behaviors to fit those needs) more than collectivistic cultures (e.g., Chinese culture) collectivistic cultures encourage their members to adjust to others (i.e., suppress personal needs adjust in order to accommodate others’ needs) more than individualistic cultures n n “Influencing” others initially requires immediate action (e.g., asking someone to do something) “adjusting” to others initially requires attention and suspension of action (e.g., waiting for others’ instructions) Because initiating action requires increases in physiological arousal, whereas suspending action does not, individuals who aim to influence others should value high arousal states more and low arousal states less than individuals who aim to adjust to others n n n n members of individualistic cultures should value high arousal positive states (e.g., excitement, high enthusiasm) more and low arousal positive states (e.g., calm, relaxation) less low members of collectivistic cultures should value low arousal positive states (e.g., calm, relaxation) low more and high arousal positive states (e.g., excitement, enthusiasm) less high n Research Research Findings n European Americans reported valuing high arousal positive states more (EA>HKC) and low arousal positive states less than Hong Kong Chinese (EA<HKC) Chinese Americans, who are oriented to both cultures, reported valuing high arousal positive states more than Hong Kong Chinese (CA>HKC) but also reported valuing low arousal positive states more than European Americans (CA>EA) No cultural differences emerged in participants’ actual experience of these states, supporting the prediction that cultural factors shape ideal affect more than actual affect n n n How Do People Learn to Value Specific Affective States? n people learn to value specific affective states early in life, through various pathways including exposure to “cultural products” (i.e., material objects that are widely distributed within a cultural context and that reflect the culture’s values) 6 European American, Asian American, and Taiwanese Chinese Preschoolers smile small, closed “calm” big, open “excited” Children asked (1) which one they preferred and (2) whether they preferred to engage in various activities (e.g., swimming) in an excited manner (e.g., splashing in the pool) or a calm manner (e.g., floating in the pool). European American preschoolers preferred excited (vs. calm) states more (indexed by activity and smile preferences) and perceived excited (vs. calm) states as happier than Taiwanese Chinese preschoolers. Asian American preschoolers fell in between the other groups. Socialization of Emotions n Compared the affective content of bestselling children’s storybooks in the United States and in Taiwan. As predicted, American storybooks contained more excited (vs. calm) expressions, wider smiles, and more exciting (vs. calm) activities than did Taiwanese storybooks. Compared affective content of popular texts from Christianity and Buddhism (the dominant religious traditions in American and Chinese contexts). As predicted, Christian texts encouraged their readers to feel high arousal positive states more and low arousal positive states less than Buddhist texts. n n For example, in the bestselling Christian self- help book, “Your Best Life Now,” selfreaders are told, “…I'm excited about my future!” Start speaking those kinds of excited words and before long, you will rise to a new level of well- being, success, and wellvictory.” In contrast, in “The Art of Happiness,” a bestselling Buddhist self- help book, selfreaders are told, “He [the 14th Dalai Lama]…has pointed out that a happy life is built on a foundation of a calm, stable state of mind.” Indeed, Christians report calm valuing high arousal positive states more and low arousal positive states less than do Buddhists. n Implications Implications of AVT n How much people valued high arousal positive states was correlated with their vacation preferences (e.g., “partying” vs. “reading”), leisure activities (e.g., “running” vs. “walking”), and drug use (e.g., frequency of stimulant use) Ideal affect accounted for differences among European Americans, Chinese Americans, and Hong Kong Chinese in these mood-producing behaviors, even moodafter controlling for actual affect. Ideal affect predicts the consumer products people choose (e.g., “energizing” vs. “relaxing” dishwashing liquids, sports drinks, and lotions). AmericanAmericanChinese differences in ideal affect may explain why Americans are more likely to engage in extreme sports and to abuse stimulants such as cocaine and amphetamine than their Chinese counterparts Acculturation more likely to influence ideal emotions n n n 7 Alcohol Consumption Are there ethnic differences in consumption? What explains ethnic differences in consumption? What causes alcoholism? Can ethnic differences serve as a model for alcoholism? Rates of Alcohol Consumption Asian Americans drink less alcohol—studies alcohol— by Sue, Zane, and & Ito; Akutsu, Sue, Zane, & Nakamura Explanations for Alcohol Consumption SocioSocio-Cultural Drink less because of attitudes, values, socialization, cultural practices. Disapprove of drunkeness though may drink at parties. Physiological Drink less because of physiological reactions: flushing, headaches, increased heartrate and blood pressure, dysphoria, nausea, dizziness. Wolff and reactivity. 8 Reciprocity Model Physiological Alcohol Consumption Sociocultural Sue et al. Asians self-report drinking less selfn Assimilation/acculturation measures n n Socializing n Socializing and speaking and generation n Socializing and alcohol quantity n Speaking and generation n Speaking and alcohol quantity n Generation and alcohol quantity -.32* .09 .14 .-.56*** -.31* .36*** Implications n Alcohol consumption and attitudes shaped by acculturation 9 Love Attitudes Scale (Hendricks and Hendricks) n Directions: Listed below are several statements that reflect different attitudes about love. For each statement fill in the blank using the response that indicates how much you agree or disagree with that statement. The items refer to a specific love relationship. Whenever possible, answer the questions with your current partner in mind. If you are not currently dating anyone, answer the questions with your most recent partner in mind. If you have never been in love, answer in terms of what you think your responses would most likely be. There is no right or wrong answers--as we each carry traits from the different styles answers--as of love. For each question score the following (1) strongly agree, (2) moderately agree, (3) neutral-neither agree nor disagree, (4) moderately disagree, neutral(5) strongly disagree. PASS (ERS) ___1. My partner and I were attracted to each other immediately after we first met. ___2. My partner and I have the right physical "chemistry" between us. ___3. Our lovemaking is very intense and satisfying. ___4. I feel that my partner and I were meant for each other. ___5. My partner and I became emotionally involved rather quickly. ___6. My partner and I really understand each other. ___7. My partner fits my ideal standards for physical beauty/handsomeness. GME (LUD) ___8. I try to keep my partner a little uncertain about my commitment to him/her. ___9. I believe that what my partner does not know about me won't hurt him/her. ___10. I have sometimes had to keep my partner from finding out about other partners. ___11. I could get over my affair with my partner pretty easily and quickly. ___12. My partner would get upset if he/she knew of some of the things I have done with other people. ___13. When my partner gets too dependent on me, I want to back off a little. ___14. I enjoy playing the "game of love" with my partner and a number of other partners. 10 FRDSP (STOR) ___15. It is hard for me to say exactly when our friendship turned into love. ___16. To be genuine, our love first required caring for a while. ___17. I expect to always be friends with my partner. ___18. Our love is the best kind because it grew out of a long friendship. ___19. Our friendship merged gradually into love over time. ___20. Our love is really a deep friendship, not a mysterious, mystical emotion. ___21. Our love relationship is the most satisfying because it developed from a good friendship. LOGLOG-SHOP (PRAG) ___22. I considered why my partner was going to become in life before I committed myself to him/her. ___23. I tried to plan my life carefully before choosing my partner. ___24. In choosing my partner, I believed it was best to love someone with a similar background. ___25. A main consideration in choosing my partner was how he/she would reflect on my family. ___26. An important factor in choosing my partner was whether or not he/she would be a good parent. ___27. One consideration in choosing my partner was how he/she would reflect on my career. ___28. Before getting very involved with my partner, I tried to figure out how compatible his/her hereditary background would be with mine in case we every had children. DEP (MAN) 29. When things are not right with my partner and me, my stomach gets upset. ___30. If my partner and I break up, I would get so depressed that I would even think of suicide. ___31. Sometimes I get so excited about being in love with my partner that I cannot sleep. ___32. When my partner does not pay attention to me, I feel sick all over. ___33. Since I have been in love with my partner, I have had trouble concentrating on anything else. ___34. I cannot relax if I suspect that my partner is with someone else. ___35. If my partner ignores me for a while, I sometimes do stupid things to try to get his/her attention back. 11 GIVGIV-SLFLS (AG) ___36. I try to always help my partner through difficult times. ___37. I would rather suffer myself than let my partner suffer. ___38. I cannot be happy unless I place my partner's happiness before my own. ___39. I am usually willing to sacrifice my own wishes to let my partner achieve his/hers. ___40. Whatever I own is my partner's to use as he/she chooses. ___41. When my partner gets angry with me, I still love him/her fully and unconditionally. ___42. I would endure all things for the sake of my partner. Scoring Scoring: The lower the score indicates your agreement with the "love style" as it relates to your relationship. Each love style score will range from 7 (in total agreement) to 35 (in total disagreement) -- with 17-18 being neutral (neither in agreement or 17disagreement). (Source: C. Hendrick & S. S. Hendrick (1990). A relationshiprelationship-specific version of the Love Attitudes Scale, Journal of Social Behavior and Personality, 5, 239-254.) 239- Love Styles Influenced by Acculturation n Three primary love styles n (Eros, Ludus and Storge) n Three secondary styles n (Pragma, Mania and Agape), each of which are mixtures of two primaries. 12 Eros n Eros has a deep desire to get involved on all levels very quickly. They have an intense focus on the partner, and want to become intimate both sexually and emotionally. Typically, the Eros lover doesn’t push the partner into this intensity, but allows things to develop. SelfSelf-confidence and a high degree of self-esteem are major selfcharacteristics of Eros, allowing intense, monogamous attentiveness to the partner without jealousy or possessiveness. The Eros lover also has a definite image of the physical characteristics he or she seeks in a partner. For instance, if you are always drawn to a partner who is tall, dark-haired and brown-eyed, then you are likely an darkbrownEros. n Ludus n The Ludus lover plays love as a game, in some respects an outgrowth of courtly love, and he or she likes the game best when it is played with several partners at a time, so that Ludus can enjoy the varieties of the adventure and also prevent any serious attachments. This lover does not favor a specific physical type, but likes all the flowers of the garden and enjoys sex as good, clean fun. Some people find the description of Ludus rather distasteful, and make moral evaluations of it, but Ludus has no intention of hurting people and actually lays the rules of the game on the table very early in the relationship. Ludus just wants to have a good time and let other people have a good time, too." n Storge n Storge is love by evolution. An unexciting kind of love style, Storge rarely makes the earth move. It is a feeling of natural affection, similar to the love one might feel for a favorite sibling. Storge is based on friendship, and strives for a safe, companionable relationship with a partner who shares similar values and attitudes. This similarity is much more important to Storge than physical attraction or sexual satisfaction, because this love style values long-term commitment over short-term longshortexcitement. n 13 Pragma n Pragma, one of the secondary love styles, illustrates the lover who goes shopping for a mate with, the shopping list approach. The pragmatic lover isn’t looking for fireworks, but for an appropriate mate with whom he or she can build a satisfying life. Pragma differs from Storge in that it is more likely to have conditions before developing a relationship, while a Storge partner can more easily grow to love someone without being concerned about their financial resources or family background n n A Manic lover yearns for love, but somehow it always becomes painful. This lover is jealous and full of doubts about his or her partner’s commitment. They also experience dramatic physical symptoms, like the inability to eat and sleep, and often experience intense excitement alternating with debilitating depression. The behavior of the Manic lover often precipitates the end of the relationship, because he or she attempts to force the partner to commit instead of waiting for the commitment to evolve. This result in turn confirms the Manic lover’s worst fear. Mania obsesses about the partner so intensely that they simply cannot enjoy the relationship. To use a weather analogy, in a rainstorm, a Manic lover will stand outside, selfself-destructively getting soaked and waiting for thunder and lightening to strike." Manic n n Agape n n Agape is the most rare of the love styles. The Agapic lover is the closest thing the romantic world has to a saint. Agape focuses on the partner’s welfare and is selfless and giving. The Agapic lover forms a relationship because of what he or she may be able to do for the partner, instead of what the partner can provide. Sensual concerns are not relevant to this idealistic lover, who places a higher value on spirituality. In a rainstorm, the Agape lover would give you his or her umbrella. n n 14 Findings n Men are consistently more Ludic, whereas woman are more Storgic, Pragmatic, and Manic. Results for Eros and Agape have been inconsistent, essentially showing no differences between the sexes. Both genders appear to be equally passionate in their relationships, but women also may be more concerned with some of the more practical aspects of a love relationship. Women generally report as more Manic, a style which is very different from the sensible Storge-Pragma configuration. We don’t know if women are really Storgemore possessive and dependent than men. It’s possible that women are just more willing to admit to mania than men are. The stereotype of men as game-players who avoid intimacy is supported by the gamefindings of a consistent gender difference on Ludus, with males always reporting themselves as more game-playing. gameSexSex -role orientation may play a bigger role in love and sex attitudes than one’s actual gender does. Results of an early study for gender were consistent with other studies, but findings for gender-role orientation were impressive: genderAndrogynous subjects most endorsed Eros and Pragma and, along with feminine subjects, most endorsed Agape. Masculine subjects most endorsed Ludus; feminine subjects most endorsed Mania; and Storge showed no differences. n n n n Asian Asian American Students Lower than other students on Eros and higher on Storge and Pragma n Cultural differences; what about acculturation differences? n Sexual Aggression Are there ethnic differences in sexual aggression? What causes sexual aggression? 15 The Confluence Model of Malamuth Paths Paths Hostile Masculinity --an insecure, defensive, Masculinity--an hypersensitive, and hostile-distrustful orientation, hostileparticularly toward women, and gratification from controlling or dominating women. Impersonal Sex--a willingness to engage in sexual Sex--a relations without closeness or commitment, such as sexual promiscuity. Hall, Hall, Sue, Narang, & Lilly (2000) Intrapersonal Individualist Cultures-- ego-focused emotions, including anger, Cultures-- egofrustration, and pride, that are self-serving are common. The selfexpression of such ego-focused emotions may occasionally lead to overt egoaggression. One’s personal welfare in individualist cultures depends primarily on personal resources and is not necessarily dependent on the welfare of others. If one is not personally fulfilled, but feels entitled to fulfilment, then others may simply be regarded as vehicles to be used to become fulfilled. Interpersonal Collectivistic Cultures--persons who are interdependent tend to be Cultures--persons more concerned about negative evaluations by others than those who are independent. Being unique and asserting one’s personal desires are dede -emphasized insofar as they may interfere with group harmony. An aggressive act may be regarded as a crime against a whole community or society rather than an isolated act involving two individuals Measures Measures Intrapersonal Variables Rape Myth Acceptance Scale Hostility Toward Women Scale Sexual promiscuity Interpersonal Variables Loss of face Impact of sexual aggression Alcohol use 16 Rape Myth Acceptance 1. A woman who goes to the home or apartment of a man on their first date implies that she is willing to have sex. 2. Any female can get raped. 3. One reason that women falsely report a rape is that they frequently have a need to call attention to themselves. 4. Any healthy woman can successfully resist a rapist if she really wants to. 5. When women go around braless or wearing short skirts and tight tops, they are just asking for trouble. 6. In the majority of rapes, the victim is promiscuous or has had a bad reputation. 7. If a girl engages in necking or petting and she lets things get our of hand, it is her own fault if her partner forces sex on her. 8. Women who get raped while hitchhiking get what they deserve. 9. A woman who is stuck- up and thinks she is too good to talk to guys on the street stuckdeserves to be taught a lesson. 10. Many women have an unconscious wish to be raped, and may then unconsciously set up a situation in which they are likely to be attacked. 11. If a woman gets drunk at a party and has intercourse with a man she's just met there, she should be considered "fair game" to other males at the party who want to have sex with her too, whether she wants to or not. Hostility Hostility Toward Women 1. I feel that many times women flirt with men just to tease them or hurt them. 2. I feel upset even by slight criticism by a woman. 3. It doesn't really bother me when women tease me about my faults. 4. I used to think that most women told the truth but now I know otherwise. 5. I do not believe that women will walk all over you if you aren't willing to fight. 6. I do not often find myself disagreeing with women. 7. I do very few things to women that make me feel remorseful afterward. 8. I rarely become suspicious with women who are more friendly than I expected. 9. There are a number of females who seem to dislike me very much. 10. I don't agree that women always seem to get the breaks. 11. I don't seem to get what's coming to me in my relationships with women. 12. I generally don't get really angry when a woman makes fun of me. 13. Women irritate me a great deal more than they are aware of. 14. If I let women see the way I feel, they would consider me a hard person to get along with. 15. Lately, I've been kind of grouchy with women. Sexual Aggression Report any of these experiences you may have had before the age of 18 n Did a female give in to sex play (fondling, kissing, or petting, but not intercourse) when she didn't want to because she was overwhelmed by your continual arguments and pressure? Did a female have sex play (fondling, kissing, or petting, but not intercourse) with you when she didn't want to because you used your position of authority (boss, teacher, camp counselor, supervisor) to make you? Did a female have sex play (fondling, kissing, or petting, but not intercourse) with you when she didn't want to because you threatened or used some degree of physical force (twisting her arm, holding her down, etc.) to make her? Did you attempt sexual intercourse (get on top of you, attempt to insert your penis) with a female when she didn't want to by threatening or using some degree of force (twisting her arm, holding her down, etc.) but intercourse did not occur? n n n 17 Percentages of Men Who Engaged in Sexually Aggressive Behavior as Measured by the Sexual Experiences Survey ______________________________________________________________________________ Sexual Experiences Survey item Asian Americans European Americans (N = 91) (N = 377) ______________________________________________________________________________ 1. Sex play by using arguments and pressure 32% 30% 2. Sex play by using authority 5 8 3. Sex play by using physical force 2 6 4. Attempted intercourse threatening or using force 1 4 5. Attempted intercourse by giving alcohol or drugs 5 7 6. Sexual intercourse using arguments and pressure 11 14 7. Sexual intercourse by using authority 0 3 8. Sexual intercourse by giving alcohol or drugs 3 4 9. Sexual intercourse threatening or using force 1 3 10. Sex acts (not intercourse) threatening/force 0 3 ______________________________________________________________________________ Intercorrelations Intercorrelations of Variables among Asian American Men (N =91) Variables Variables 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. ____________________________________________________ 1. Loss of face -.06 -.26 .30 .23 -.08 .11 2. Impact of sex. agg. .01 -.03 .01 -.12 -.19 3. No. consenting sex partners -.14 -.01 .44 .09 4. Rape myth acceptance .46 .11 .24 5. Hostility toward women .17 .24 6. Drinking/drunk and sex .23 7. Number of victims Intercorrelations of Variables among European American Men (N =377) Variables Variables 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. ____________________________________________________ 1. Loss of face .11 -.11 .06 .07 -.03 -.05 2. Impact of sex. agg. -.02 -.03 -.02 -.02 -.08 3. No. consenting sex partners .09 -.01 .35 .08 4. Rape myth acceptance .48 .04 .28 5. Hostility toward women .01 .18 6. Drinking/drunk and sex -.02 7. Number of victims 18 Conclusions n For Asian Americans, concern about social standing is a risk factor among those who hold misogynous beliefs and who use alcohol before sex. Concern about the negative reputational impact of sexual aggression is a protective factor among Asian Americans who do not hold these negative attitudes. A European American model suggested only an intrapersonal path to sexual aggression consisting of misogynous beliefs, with interpersonal variables not being predictive of sexual aggression. An Asian American model suggest both individualist and collectivist determinants of sexual aggression, whereas only individualist determinants were found for European Americans sexual aggression. n n n Lack of Assertiveness Situational factors n Interpersonal sensitivity n Anxiety over responses n Multiple Goals n Definition of assertiveness n Less feelings of efficacy n Vignette This quarter I have an especially heavy class load and must study extra hours every week. It seems all I do is go to work, class, and study. Recently, a friend of mine ended a relationship and has been quite upset and depressed about it. She/he calls me frequently, usually after I have gotten off of work and am very tired. After spending close to an hour talking with her/him, I have little time left at night for studying. I am quite concerned about her/him and know that she/he relies on me for support. On the other hand, I need more time to study if I am to do well in my classes. A. I listen to my friend's problems whenever she/he calls and stay up later to finish studying for my classes. B. I avoid my friend's call by going to the library and leaving the phone off the hook until I have finished studying. C. I frequently mention that I have little time for my studies, hoping that she/he will recognize my need to study and keep the calls short. D. I suggest to my friend that rather than short phone calls, we can meet for a longer time over dinner or lunch. E. I tell my friend that I need more time to study and would appreciate it if she/he would call less frequently. (Assertive option) 19 Correlations of Assertive Responding with Experience, Self-efficacy, and Outcome SelfExpectancies Variable Experience SelfSelf -efficacy Outcome Expectancy Anxiety Guilt Maintain relat. Achieve goal Express self Total Sample -.13 .62*** -.42*** -.40*** .27** .25** .36*** Asian -.21 .56*** -.31* -.26* .25* .24* .38** Caucasian -.07 .64*** -.42*** -.45*** .28** .27* .31** OneNote. One-tailed tests of significance were used. *p < .05. **p < .01. ***p < .001. **p ***p Assertive Assertive Responding, Self-efficacy Expectancies, Selfand Outcome Expectancies to Different Types of Interactions Situation Asian M SD 7.76 13.49 19.28 15.46 19.46 22.72 16.76 18.38 18.52 Caucasian M SD 16.81 21.24 42.22 39.07 49.40 73.28 37.18 47.72 32.67 11.74 14.98 22.00 16.76 18.74 18.37 16.46 18.36 20.04 t(127)a - .77 - 1.92 - 2.96** - .56 - 2.46* - 3.30** 1.15 - 1.59 .12 Assertive Responding Intimate 15.41 Acquaintance 16.33 Stranger 31.20 SelfSelf- efficacy Intimate 37.44 Acquaintance 41.05 Stranger 61.35 Maintaining Relat. Intimate 40.56 Acquaintance 42.51 Stranger 33.09 Note. Higher scores indicate greater likelihood of occurrence. atat - tests involve comparisons between the two ethnic groups. Concepts Ethnic identity (the degree to which one views oneself as a member of a particular ethnic group) n Acculturation (the process of adjusting to a different culture) n Cultural orientation (one’s feelings toward and levels of engagement in different cultures) n 20 TriTri-partite Model Traditionalist n Marginal Man n Asian American n Assimilation/Acculturation Conclusions n n n n n n Assimilation/acculturation has strong influences on values, attitudes, behaviors Asian Americans assimilating Elements that are extinguished, maintained, changed, or added differ (acculturation is not uniform) Elements can be good or bad (acculturation can result in good or bad characteristics) Must try to shape direction of acculturation for the better Multiple identities (different roles, statuses, advantage/disadvantages in adopting a role) Interpersonal Sensitivity n n n n n n n Nisei in their youth experienced more than the usual difficulty in developing a mode of interpersonal interaction which would be functional in the larger society Therefore that they persisted in associating with other Nisei with whom they shared a common interpersonal style An individual carries on interaction and communication (transmissions of meanings), both verbal and non-verbal, in direct person-to-person nonperson-torelations The style may be described by such terms as "reserved, "assertive", "cool", "diffident", "effusive", and so on. Why the Nisei experienced difficulty in relating readily with majority group persons arose from their Japanese style of interaction, which they learned under Issei parental influence, and which was in sharp and almost direct contrast to the American interpersonal style. They found it necessary to devise a unique Nisei interpersonal style as a method of dealing with the discomfort felt in interactive situations. Nisei persist in associating with other Nisei because they feel more comfortable associating with those with whom they share a common interpersonal style. 21 ...
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This note was uploaded on 04/19/2011 for the course ASA 3 taught by Professor Sue during the Fall '08 term at UC Davis.

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