5- Sex Roles

5- Sex Roles - Asian American Studies 3 Psychosocial...

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Unformatted text preview: Asian American Studies 3 Psychosocial Perspectives of Asian Americans Theories Theories Relative group size, heterogeneity, and sex ratio n Acculturation and Assimilation n Legal barriers, and Changing Norms n Hypergamy n Other psychological models n 1 Difficulties in Studying Intermarriage n Definitions n n InterInter- and intra -racial Endogenous and exogenous By individuals By marriage Outmarrige rates based on marriages are always lower than rates based on individuals (outmarriages per total marriages lower than number of individuals who outmarry per total marriages) Sampling Geographic locations Group n Units of analysis n n n n Representativeness n n n SKIP ALL OF THIS Intermarrigage There are two major sources of data concerning inter-marriage. One source is the interUnited States Census which provides data on existing marriages (prevalence); the other is marriage license records maintained by local sources which provide data on new marriages on a year by year basis (incidence). There are limitations from both of these sources including the following: 1. They are self reports, and categories for people of mixed ancestry are arbitrary. 2. Ethnic and racial categories have not been consistently recorded. Another problem has been the lumping together of the various Asian American groups into an "Asian," or "other" category. 3. Hawaii has been an exception; they have data for each of the Asian American groups. 3. Although local marriage license records provide more detailed information (i.e. place of birth, birthplace of parents, number of previous marriages, occupation), the gathering of the data is costly and tedious. For example, in Los Angeles, researchers have to go through over 35,000 marriage licenses for any given year and identify the various Asian American applicants by surname and birthplace while competing with other groups for access to the microfilm records. MARRIAGE PATTERNS AMONG THE 'U.S.'U.S.RAISED' (C.N. Le, 2004 ) n n The following tables show the percentage of each Asian ethnic group who are married endogamously or to Other Asians, Whites, Blacks, or Hispanics, by husband and wife who are "U.S.-raised" -"U.S.either born in the U.S. or who immigrated to the U.S. at age 13 or younger. The outmarriage rates for individuals born outside the U.S. or immigrants over age 13 are much lower. U.S.U.S.-Born or 1.5 Generation: 2 Percentages of the Six Largest Asian Ethnic Groups who are Married to Asian Indians n Husbands n n n n n Asian Indians 69.2 (25,980) Other Asians 3.7 Whites 20.5 Blacks 1.7 Hispanics/Latinos 4.3 Asian Indians 69.9 (33,179) Other Asians 4.1 Whites 21.1 Blacks 2.5 Hispanics/Latinos 1.6 n Wives n n n n n Percentages Percentages of the Six Largest Asian Ethnic Groups who are Married to Chinese n Husbands n n n n n Chinese 64.5 (89,334) Other Asians 12.7 Whites 19.3 Blacks 0.2 Hispanics/Latinos 2.6 Chinese 55.0 (95,444) Other Asians 10.8 Whites 29.9 Blacks 0.7 Hispanics/Latinos 2.9 n Wives n n n n n Percentages Percentages of the Six Largest Asian Ethnic Groups who are Married to Filipinos n Husbands n n n n n Filipinos 49.6 (65,162) Other Asians 12.6 Whites 28.1 Blacks 0.6 Hispanics/Latinos 7.7 Filipinos 37.0 (79,346) Other Asians 9.2 Whites 40.5 Blacks 4.0 Hispanics/Latinos 7.6 n Wives n n n n n 3 Percentages of the Six Largest Asian Ethnic Groups who are Married to Japanese n Husbands n n n n n Japanese 62.7 (113,512) Other Asians 13.9 Whites 19.7 Blacks 0.3 Hispanics/Latinos 2.8 Japanese 56.2 (117,243) Other Asians 11.2 Whites 28.1 Blacks 0.9 Hispanics/Latinos 2.6 n Wives n n n n n Percentages Percentages of the Six Largest Asian Ethnic Groups who are Married to Koreans n Husbands n n n n n Koreans 63.2 (24,522) Other Asians 9.2 Whites 23.9 Blacks 0.1 Hispanics/Latinos 3.4 Koreans 40.0 (34,464) Other Asians 7.5 Whites 48.0 Blacks 1.4 Hispanics/Latinos 2.5 n Wives n n n n n Percentages Percentages of the Six Largest Asian Ethnic Groups who are Married to Vietnamese n Husbands n n n n n Vietnamese 72.7 (20,963) Other Asians 11.7 Whites 11.3 Blacks 0.7 Hispanics/Latinos 2.9 Vietnamese 66.8 (26,936) Other Asians 7.1 Whites 22.7 Blacks 0.7 Hispanics/Latinos 2.4 n Wives n n n n n FUCK THESE STATS` 4 Husbands -- Most / Least Likely to Have a(n) __ Spouse: Endogamous -- Most: Vietnamese / Least: Filipinos n Other Asian (Pan-Asian) -- Most: Japanese / (PanLeast: Asian Indians n White -- Most: Filipinos / Least: Vietnamese n Black -- Most: Asian Indians / Least: Koreans n Hispanic/Latino -- Most: Filipinos / Least: Chinese n Wives -- Most / Least Likely to Have a(n) __ Spouse: n Endogamous -- Most: Asian Indian / Least: Filipinos n Other Asian (Pan-Asian) -- Most: Japanese / (PanLeast: Asian Indians n White -- Most: Korean / Least: Asian Indians n Black -- Most: Filipino / Least: Chinese n Hispanic/Latino -- Most: Filipino / Least: Asian Indians Unmarrieds (Source: 2000 Census) n Unmarried Asian Women Living with . . . n n n n Asians 45.2 Whites 39.7 Blacks 5.0 Hispanics/Latinos 5.8 n Unmarried Asian Men Living with . . . n n n n Asians 63.4 Whites 26.5 Blacks 1.0 Hispanics/Latinos 5.5 n The results of this table basically correspond to the intermarriage results and show that Asian women are much more likely to be living with an opposite sex partner who is White, Black, or Latino, compared to Asian men. 5 Caveats Both spouses are U.S. raised n intermarriages are much more common outside of the major urban areas where most young Asian Americans lives n Begin relevancy Kitano, Kitano, Fujino, & Sato (1998) Methodology Data were gathered through an examination of marital records available from the Los Angeles County Marriage License Bureau. Every application with an identifiable Asian surname was drawn. Ethnicity could not be reported since 1959, so that the surname provided the primary means of identification. The identification was supported by information on the application which included applicant's and parents' birthplace, mother's maiden name, and father's surname. Other variables included highest completed grade, number of marriages, age, and occupation. Any marriage to a member who was not of the same ethnic group was considered an outmarriage (i.e. Japanese surname to a Chinese surname, or Japanese surname to a non -Asian surname); an interracial marriage was defined as one where one partner did not have an Asian surname. We estimate that we have correctly identified over 95% of the Asian Americans who were married in Los Angeles County. Outmarriage Rates of Chinese, Filipino, Japanese, Korean, and Vietnamese, Total and By Gender Year Year Chinese 1989 1984 1979 1977 1975 1989 1989 1984 1979 1977 1975 1989 1984 1979 1977 1975 1989 1984 Marriages Number 1,836 1,881 716 650 596 1,384 1,134 1,404 764 756 664 1,372 543 334 232 250 555 560 622 564 295 323 250 565 588 719 463 477 364 151 47 92 79 65 147 34 Percent 33.9 30.0 41.2 49.7 44.0 40.8 51.9 51.2 60.6 63.1 54.8 11.0 8.7 27.6 34.1 26.0 26.5 6.0 Women 63.0 56.6 56.3 56.3 62.2 74.2 58.3 60.2 52.7 60.6 53.6 74.8 78.6 79.6 73.4 63.1 54.4 74.7 Men 37.0 43.4 43.7 43.7 37.8 25.8 41.7 39.8 47.3 39.4 46.4 25.2 21.4 20.4 26.6 36.9 45.6 25.3 Filipino Japanese Korean Vietnam 6 Mean Age, Education, Generation, and Number of Marriages Between In- and Out-Married Chinese by Gender in Los InOutAngeles County, 1989 Female In First Generation Second Generation Third Generation Age (M) (M 29.6 Education (M) (M 14.9 Number of Marriages (M) (M 1.15 15.4 1.17 15.8 1.16 15.8 1.12 30.1 32.9 30.9* (N,%) 555 (68.2) (N,%) 41 (35.3) (N,%) 9 (13.4) Out 259 (31.8) 75 (64.7) 58 (86.6) Male In 541 (78.0) 46 (52.9) 20 (35.7) Out 153 (22.1) 41 (47.1) 36 (64.3) Education refers to the number of years of education completed. Number of Marriages refers to the total number of marriages, including the marriage presently being applied for. most important Odds Ratio for Variables Predicting Outmarriage by Gender Gender Variable Chinese a Filipino a Korean a Vietnamese a Second Generation b Third Generation b Age Education No of Marriages (2+)c a Compared to Japanese American b Compared to first generation c Compared to one marriage * p<.05. ** p<.01. *** p<.001. Female 1.34* 2.25*** .45*** 1.03 3.11*** 5.63*** 1.00 1.01 1.62*** Male .98 .89 .18*** 1.08 3.35*** 4.57*** .97*** 1.00 1.69*** 1 White Male Qualities I intended to marry a white man. But what were my attitudes leading up to our decision to marry? My parents have tried to encourage me to marry an Asian, but they also wanted me to marry a man of my own choosing. I have met many Asian men, and they seem to lack many qualities that I would need in any man I would marry. My fiance possesses all these qualities and many more. It seems that they are all the White stereotype qualities that are important to White middle and upper class mothers. His qualities: 1) tall, 2) handsome, 3) manly, 4) self -confident, 5) well-poised, 6) protective, 7) selfwelldomineering, 8) affectionate, and 9) imaginative. These are all Prince Charming characteristics that all White women instill in their daughters for the ideal mate. My future husband seems to possess all of them, and he's also White. It seems that Asian girls who marry White men are looking for this stereotype and will not settle for the short, ugly, unconfident, clumsy, arrogant Asian man that we are all plagued with. Asian women also have stereotypes--small, long black hair, gentle, stereotypes--small, obedient, loving, soft, very womanly, quiet, and beautiful. None of these are derogatory, but all complimentary. Women like to be thought of in this way. 7 White Male Qualities The Asian man seems to have a very distorted picture of masculinity. More and more Asian American girls are seeing that there is a better life-life-dating the White male. He treats her as the woman she really is, and doesn't have a hangup about proving his masculinity. On of my girlfriends mentioned that although she doesn't like the idea of stereotypes, she doesn't really mind it with White men. They seem to appreciate one much more. She feels much better adjusted not dating Asians. After an Asian boy has seduced his girlfriend, she will expect to marry him, and he begins to take her for granted. He has proved his masculinity, and for once, she feels truly loved. If an Asian girl were seduced by a White boyfriend, she would probably enjoy the relationship much more and not dwell upon marriage. Asian girls have two forms of behavior, one for Asian boys, and one for White boys. When they find the one that is typically them, as I did-did-they make their decision. (adapted from Roots: An Asian American Reader) 2 Why Rates? 1. AA accept Caucasians when more assimilated 2. Caucasian accept AA when AA more assimilated 3. Situational factors Urban > Contact Not segregated > Contact Laws change Not want traditional beauty standard (Arhoff & Weaver) Language White Middle Class Values Achievement Mobility Stereotype more positive 3 n n Differential Rates n n n n n n Signifies full acceptance by White society. An Asian American may marry a White person because s/he (consciously or unconsciously) wants to be fully accepted in White society. Hypergamy would also suggest that Asian Americans marry Whites to increase their social status, since Whites generally occupy the highest socio- cultural position in the socioU.S.'s racial hierarchy. Cultural stereotype or fetish of Asian women is a large reason why many males (particularly White males) are attracted to Asian women. In this sense, Asian women are not seen as equal partners but rather, as sexual objects to be controlled and used by the male. Rarely is the opposite happening -- Asian males being the subjects of infatuation or sexual desire by White women. In fact, these critics would point out that Asian males have been and continue to be purposely portrayed as non- sexual martial arts experts, nonnerds and geeks, or evil villains and that this portrayal serves to eliminate Asian males as potential rivals to White males for the affection of Asian women. The saddest irony is when Asian women either allow themselves to be objectified and fetishized or when they buy into and accept these demeaning portrayals of Asian men and eliminate them as potential partners. Reasons why Asian Americans marry within their ethnic group. Sometimes, particularly for young Asian immigrant women, they are pressured or forced into marrying within their own ethnic group by family members and cultural traditions. Patriarchy and sexism still exists within many elements of traditional Asian culture. Height differences Initiative and face in dating Male lineage and family name ~ ~ 8 Female 1. Females more acculturated 2. War bride—military bases bride— 3. Female sex role 4. Patriarchy - male name 5. Loss of male face - initiative 6. Height 7. Stereotype of M & F (Weiss) 8. More females of marriageable age Why 4 Why Asian Guys Are on a Roll: AsianAsian-American men were told for many years by their own community to be dutiful sons. By Esther Pan, Newsweek, February 21, 2000 After getting divorced from an "All- American guy" she'd been with for 10 years, 31-year - old "All31-yearpublicist Lisa Rosevear was ready for something new. She came up with a list of what she wanted in a man: smart, genuine, respectful. Adding it up, it occurred to her that guys who fit the bill were ... Asian, a group she'd never considered romantically before. So when Wayne Chang, a Korean- American Internet journalist, stopped her on the street, Koreanthe timing was just right. "Cool hair!" he said. "You look just like Astro Girl." Rosevear, a big fan of the Japanese animated character, replied, "I love Astro Girl!" They've been together ever since. On the surface, this little love story isn't so remarkable. America is full of mixed- race mixedcouples, and getting fuller all the time. But 10 years ago, an Asian man dating a white, Hispanic or black woman would have been a rare event. Over the past 30 years, the AsianAsian- American community has gotten used to the idea of Asian women intermarrying. But not Asian men. The 1980 census found nearly three times as many marriages between Asian women and white men than between Asian men and white women. Experts are divided over the causes for the imbalance. One reason may be that many Asian men born in America face strong family pressure to be dutiful sons by marrying appropriate (read: same race, good family) women. Assimilation was often considered a bad thing. Chang says his family told him, "Go forth and multiply- but only with a nice Korean girl." At the same time the message Asian men multiplywere getting from society was: you are not the masculine ideal. But this gender gap has been closing. Asian-American men are marrying outside their ethnic group at a far Asianfaster rate than before, according to new research by demographer Larry Hajine Shinagawa. He concludes that Asian-American men born in the United States are far more likely to marry women who are white Asian(18.9%), of other Asian ethnicity (22.7%), or another racial minority (6%) than more recent immigrants. Shinegawa expects the trend to continue....At the same time, the media are redefining their image of AsianAsianAmerican men, a group previously labeled as weak, sexless and unable to offer the status and security that white men could. Marlon Villa, a Filipino from San Francisco whose wife is white, says the old idea was, "Black guys are studs, white guys have all the power and Asian guys are the nerdy little wimps that women wouldn't glance at.“ Charlie Chan was one early stereotype, formal and inscrutable. There were servants, and sneaky villains, and Bruce Lee-who, superman that he was, never got the girl on screen. Then came Jackie Chan, heir to Lee's Leetradition. "He's a funny martial artist, but are you going to sleep with him?" asks sociology professor Rebecca Chiyoko King of the University of San Francisco. Now, however, a new wave of Asian actors and action heroes-Chow Yun Fat, Rick Yune and Jet Li-are showing that Asian stars can be objects of lust as heroesLiwell as the next guy. (Witness the handsome leading men in "Anna and the King," starring Chow and Jodie Foster, and Yune's recent "Snow Falling on Cedars.") Jet Li got a deal with Warner Bros. because women in test audiences loved him in 'Lethal Weapon 4'," says Chris Lee, an L.A. film producer who predicts more crossover to come. "You'll definitely be seeing more of the Asian male as romantic hero, instead of just gun-toting villain or sexless geek," he says. Images of Asian fashion models, once confined gunto the willowy, androgynous "Madame Butterfly" look, are changing, too: designers and advertisers now seem infatuated with a new Asian machismo. Part of this is undoubtedly about money. It's no coincidence that sexy new images of Asian-American men are Asianpopping up on billboards and movie screens, just as the economic and social profile of Asians in America continues to rise. As an ethnic group, Asian-Pacific Islanders have the highest proportion of college Asiangraduates (42 percent) and highest median household income ($45,249) in America. Stanford history professor Gordon Chang says the image of Asian-American men has progressed from "son of a laborer or Asianlaundryman" to "future Internet millionaire.“ In the age of Yahoo's cofounder Jerry Yang, traditionally negative stereotypes of Asian males as smart, studious and hardworking become positives. They're practically turn -of-the-century American heroes. All of this has implications in the marriage market, of-thesociologists say. "When you think about marriage patterns," Gordon Chang says, "social position plays a big part in how we evaluate partners." 9 A Threatened Manhood? Exploring Exploring the myth of the angry Asian male By By Joyce Nishioka Asian Week, Thursday, February 3, 2000 * Volume 21, No. 23 n n n n At Lambda Phi Epsilon fraternity at UC Berkeley, all the members are Asian American. And on Friday, none of the party- goers cross that color line. Korean American Raymond partyKim, who helped organize the party, says that when it comes to coupling up, only Asian women will do. And up until a couple years ago, when he saw an Asian woman with a white man, his instinctive reaction was “sell- out.” “sell“It’s definitely harder for an Asian male to date a white female than for Asian females to date white males,” Kim says. “Asian males are not portrayed as masculine, whereas Asian females are stereotyped as submissive, exotic.” The 22- year-old thinks that Asian American women in general have an easier time 22- yearassimilating into the mainstream. While interviewing for a job with a consulting company, Kim, a senior, says that out of 60 finalists for employment, 15 Asian American women made the cut -- he’s the only Asian man. “In the first round, there were a lot of Asian males. White males would prefer hiring and working with Asian females over Asian males.” During his freshman year, Kim dated a white woman. The relationship gained him respect from his Asian American male friends, he says, admitting that one of the reasons he went out with her “was a status thing.” And up until a couple years ago, he was impressed when he saw Asian man with a white woman. “I thought, ‘all right, he’s got a white girlfriend.’” Continued Continued n Fellow Lambda brother Kelvin Lin, 22, also prefers to date Asian American women. He notices subtle differences in how Asian women are treated as opposed to their white counterparts, especially by his nonnon -Asian American peers. When he goes to clubs with his white friends, Lin says, he notices they’re more confident with Asian women, and their comments tend to have more sexual connotations. “When they see an Asian girl, they say things like, ‘I want to get with her,’” Lin explains. “But when they see a Caucasian woman, they make more subtle comments like, ‘Oh, she’s pretty.’” Though Lin feels uneasy when he sees an Asian woman dating a white man, he says he feels “guilty “ for judging the relationship based on stereotypes and his past experiences. Now, he tries not to be so critical. “As long as the guy is treating her right, I have no problem with interracial dating,” Lin concludes. n n Continued Continued n n n n Sam Lau, 26, has witnessed that privileged mentality. While a student at University of Wisconsin, he met a few white men who he believes had Asian fetishes. “They didn’t care about the girls’ looks as long as they had long hair and were petite.” Lau says some of these men would go to extreme measures to meet Asian women. “I took some Japanese and Chinese classes,” Lau continues. “A lot of white people take those classes because they are interested in the language and culture -- but mainly as a means to meet the women.” Lau even knew of one man who worked in a bar patronized mainly by Asian Americans so he could meet women. 10 Continued n Not all Asian American males are that understanding, however. Curtiss Takada Rooks, an assistant professor of Asian American Studies at San Jose State University, says there is a sense of Asian American male frustration as Asian American women continue to outmarry at higher rates than Asian American men, and media bombards society with images of Asian men as either “stern and misogynist” or “effeminate and nerdy.” “Asian American male frustration is not a myth,” Rooks says. “The frustration, however, is not so much based on marrying out, but rather on the reason women are marrying out. Asian American men feel dismissed by Asian American women, not for who they are, but for what society says they are.” But the outmarriage gap between U.S.-born men and U.S.women is closing. n n n n n n Lau, himself, has dated non-Asian women. Growing up, he didn’t know nonany Asians except for his family and family friends. Later on, however, he found he had more in common with Asian American women. When dating one white woman, he felt a particularly strong cultural gap. “Asians hold family in higher regard,” Lau says. “When my grandfather got sick I stayed at home more and spent less time with her. She complained, saying I hardly knew my grandfather. But he was my mother’s dad. I wanted to be there for my mom. She couldn’t understand that.” Now living in California, he has become friends with many Asian Americans, who, he says, “have problems” with Asian women dating white men. “A lot of Asian guys feel they can’t get white girls because they wouldn’t find them attractive,” Lau says. “When the guys see Asian girls who only like white guys, it makes them feel shitty. 11 Mok (1999) Hypothesis 1: n Likelihood of dating White Americans will be correlated positively with acculturation, acculturation, perceiving Whites as more attractive than Asians, and interracial dating experience. Hypothesis 2: n Likelihood of dating White Americans will be correlated negatively with ethnic identity, Asian American friendship, parental influence, and identity, density. Hypothesis 3: n Likelihood of dating Asian Americans will be correlated positively with ethnic identity, Asian American friendship, parental influence, and identity, density. Hypothesis 4: n Likelihood of dating Asian Americans will be correlated negatively with acculturation, acculturation, perceiving Whites as more attractive than Asians, and interracial dating experience. Continued n n n With only one exception, participants who were currently dating indicated either Asian Americans (60%) or White Americans (39%) as their partners. There were no significant differences between men and women in terms of the ethnicity of their dating partners or the frequency that they were dating. Of the 157 participants, a total of 67 indicated that they were dating currently. Forty Asian Americans (19 women and 21 men) were intraracially dating, whereas 27 (16 women and 11 men) were interracially dating. Continued Two distinct models predicted likelihood of dating White Americans and likelihood of dating Asian Americans. n This suggests that different factors are salient in choosing either to date interracially or to date intraracially, and that intraracially, a choice to date Whites is not simply the mirror opposite of a choice to date Asians. n 12 Continued n In terms of likelihood of dating Whites, ethnic identity was a nonsignificant predictor, whereas acculturation was a significant predictor. The implication of this is that likelihood of dating White Americans might be influenced more by higher levels of acculturation rather than by lower ethnic identity. In other words, the degree to identity. which the dominant White culture is seen as the reference group may be more important than lack of identification with one's own ethnic group. Finding that ethnic identity is less powerful a force than acculturation speaks to the most charged claims made against interracial daters: that they are "sell-outs" to their race. Although ethnic identity is related to "sellsome degree to likelihood of dating White Americans, these findings demonstrate that how an Asian American feels about his or her race may not be as important a factor for determining likelihood of interracial dating as is acculturation. n Example At a United Nations World Conference on Human Rights held in Vienna, a number of Asian countries asserted that the Universal Declaration on Human Rights was culture bound, Western defined, and inappropriate to many non nonWestern countries. Singaporean officials felt that Asian tradition placed greater emphasis on consensus than competition, so that Western, competitive style democracy was a cultural misfit for non -Western countries. Officials nonfrom several countries argued that religious and cultural traditions justify a limited freedom of expression and a reduced social role for women. Others believed that the attacks on the declarations as being "Western" in origin would threaten human rights principles in general and attempts to gain equality for women in particular. Is such equality a biased, Western concept or a universal right? Example Example A number of scholars have argued that most Asian cultures promote values involving male superiority and rigid role structures in the family. Some scholars such as DeVos (1978) have argued that Japanese (and perhaps other Asian) American families are well adjusted because of the rigid role structures where father is father, mother is mother, etc. The role of the Japanese father is to be the head of the household. This role is irreproachably legitimate and dominant, demanding unquestioned respect from the child. The mother is expected to be deferent to and supportive of her husband. In playing her role as mother, she sees to it that her children develop a proper attitude toward their father. She demonstrates self-control and avoids direct selfconfrontation. Children growing up in these families are socialized to these role-appropriate male-female, husbandrolemalehusbandwife, father-mother, and parent-child relationships fatherparent- 13 Sex and Culture Roles (a) (b) (b) (c) (c) (d) (d) Are changes in sex roles among Asian Americans inconsistent with Asian cultural values? What are the consequences of changing sex roles in terms of family functioning? Is there an " Asian" form of feminism, or is "Asian" feminism, feminism a universally applicable phenomenon? What are trends in male-female relationships, maleespecially with respect to interracial marriage? Points Points to Consider n First, culture must not be used as a justification for oppression of others. If certain groups are socially, politically, economically, etc., disadvantaged, we must ask ourselves whether their plight is actually a product of cultural traditions, per se, rather than reasonable grounds. There may be instances in which egalitarian relationships are ill advised. Take, for example, children. Few would argue that children should have equal say in all matters (but even here we see cultural differences--children have fewer "rights" differences--children in Asian than Western societies). However, what is the rationale for expecting women to suppress ideas or to be second class citizens? Second, culture is not an immutable force. Values have changed over time and in response to social and moral realities. Dramatic examples of such changes can be demonstrated in all cultures. Appeals that there is a single, unchanged cultural tradition are usually inaccurate. Third, we must think about those aspects of culture that we wish to keep and those that we we wish to extinguish. Yes, there will be debate over which elements are desirable or undesirable; yes, it is not a simple matter to maintain, create, or eliminate cultural values because of many complex forces beyond our control. Yet, we must begin some selfselfexamination. Fourth, much variation exists in how cultural standards are actually practiced. Asian families differ in role relationships and yet, most would still consider themselves as being Asian. When assertions are made that Asian families are hierarchical and patriarchal, these are abstract statements that often fail to convey the heterogeneity of actual practices within families. Therefore, to justify rigid gender roles simply because the actions are intended to maintain culture is misguided. n n n 14 ...
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