This preview shows page 1. Sign up to view the full content.
Unformatted text preview: Asian American Studies 3 Psychosocial Perspectives of Asian Americans Glass Glass Ceiling
An “invisible” barrier that prevents employees from a particular group from rising into senior and top level managerial positions Glass Glass Ceiling
Cabezas--data Cabezas--data from the U.S. Department of Labor have revealed that Asians are seriously underrepresented as top administrators or decision makers. Even when Asian Americans are well (or even over-) represented in overprofessional corporate positions, few are promoted to top executive levels compared to Caucasians. This is not to suggest that Asian American leaders are completely absent. Rather, when considering the high proportion of Asian Americans as professional engineers, professors, corporate managers, technicians, etc., they are alarmingly underrepresented in the top level managerial-decisionmanagerial-decisionmaking positions. 1 2009 Survey of Compensation of Life Scientists in the US
n n The survey was conducted via a web-based survey which webwas open from March 5 to May 31, 2009. Participation in the survey was promoted by e -mail and advertising to ereaders of The Scientist and visitors to The Scientist web The The web site. It was also promoted by participating member societies to their members. Usable responses were received from 4,738 individuals in the United States. Respondents were asked to provide demographic data about themselves and give their base annual salary and other cash compensation. The responses were carefully filtered to eliminate duplicate or misleading responses. White White Black Black Hispanic Hispanic Asian Asian BS BS MS PhD MD 2 Asian Americans and Academics: A Model minority?
n n The fact that 58.4 percent of Indian and Pakistani Americans have completed college, but only 2.9 percent of Hmong Americans have college degrees is a prime example of why it is misleading to generalize about Asian American academic achievement. 8080 -20 is a national, nonpartisan, Political Action Committee dedicated to winning equal opportunity and justice for all Asian Americans through a SWING bloc vote, ideally directing 80% of our community's votes and money to the presidential candidate endorsed by the 80-20, who better 80represents the interests of all APAs. Hence, the name "80"8020" was created. Glass Ceiling (80-20) (80- Has 80-20 Manipulated Statistics? Why Focus On 80The Three Areas Of Private Industries, Universities And The Federal Government? Why Not Look At The Picture For All Workers?
n We present those 3 areas because reliable data (EEO-1, OPM and (EEONCES data) are available. According to the 2000 Census, when the entire civilian workforce is taken into consideration, Asian Americans still have the lowest odds to get into management. Ratio to the national average 1.00 1.0599 0.862 0.765 0.730 0.703 Category Category All White Hispanics Black Women Asian Pacific Islanders 3 Could The Low Frequency At Which Asian Americans Are Promoted To Managerial Positions Be Due To The Lack Of Seniority In The Asian American Work Force?
n According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, Asians Americans have on average greater seniority than Hispanics, although Hispanics enjoy a much higher chance of being promoted to managerial positions. Seniority Seniority Many Managers Have Business Degrees. Asian Americans Tend To Get Engineering And Science Degrees. Could That Be Why There Are So Few Asian Americans At The Managerial Level?
n n The percentage of Asian Americans with business degrees is 85% HIGHER than the national average. Although many of AsAms have engineering or science degrees, this does not translate into fewer business degrees. This is because AsAms are relatively few in fields such as English, history, psychology, liberal arts, and the humanities in general. Asian Americans represent the highest percentage of all people with MBAs, and the second highest percentage of people with either a bachelors or doctoral degree in business. The below table shows that the % of AsAm getting business degree is 10% higher than that of national average. However the % of AsAm having a bachelor's and higher degree is 75% higher than that of the national average; the two effects combine to mean that the % of AsAm having a business degree is actually 85% than that of the national average. 4 Business Degrees The Income Of The Average Asian American Is Higher Than That Of The Average Of Every Other Race Or Group Except Caucasians. Is That Proof Positive That Asian Americans Are Not Being Discriminated Against?
n Income is tightly coupled to educational attainment according to the Census of 2000. If Asian American workers were paid the average national salary according to their educational attainment, the average Asian American income would be about 15% HIGHER than the average Caucasian income. This is because Asian Americans have on average much higher educational attainment. However, in reality, the income of the average Asian American is LOWER than that of the average Caucasian. But But The Average Asian American HOUSEHOLD Income Is Indeed The Highest Of The Nation. So Is That Proof Positive Against There Being Discrimination Against Us?
n n Asian American HOUSEHOLD income should be even higher for the following reasons: "Asians nationally have the highest household incomes... due to larger households with more earners. ...Both sexes [of Asian Americans] earn less than Whites when education is taken into account... Asians have lower per capita incomes than whites." Visit: http://www.arthurhu.com/index/income.htm 5 Asian Asian Americans Are Praised As The "Model Minority." Minority." Why Would Anyone Want To Discriminate Against Them?
n A hundred and forty -four years after the founding fortyfathers declared "All men are created equal," women were still not allowed to vote. Consider who those White women were. They were the mothers, wives, sisters and daughters of the White men in power. Even after so-called ‘emancipation’, sowomen didn’t really enjoy equal opportunity. They won equal opportunity only after they have established their own GROUP political clout through organizations like NOW, Emily's List, and so on. Power never yields, unless under demand. How About The Cultural Differences Obvious In So Many Asian Americans? Asian Americans May Be Underrepresented In Managerial Positions Because We Just Don’t Have Sufficient Managerial Ambition And Ability, Language Skills, Or The Right Sense Of Humor.
n n n Recall that "Men are from Mars and women are from Venus." So the cultural difference between men and women is not only large but possibly intrinsic. But that has not prevented women from becoming leaders nowadays. Think Sandra Day O'Connor, Carly Fiorina, Diane Feinstein, Hillary Clinton, Condi Rice, Fiorina, Madeleine Albright, Meg Whitman, and Donna Shalala. When discrimination against women was rampant, women were thought to have less managerial ambition, ability, and communication skills, and to lack a sense of humor. At the time, not only did most men believe in this stereotyped image of women, but so did many women themselves. That is the most insidious aspect of prejudice. The strong and powerful can get the weak and powerless to doubt themselves! In 1965, Executive Order 11246 was issued and subsequently enforced by the Labor Department in order to give women a fair chance at becoming managers. Women rose to the challenge. The same will be true for Asian Americans. Aren’t Aren’t Asian Americans Happy In Their Workplace? Doesn’t This Show That They Are Not Being Discriminated Against?
n The EEOC engaged the Gallup Poll to do a national survey of workers' perception of discrimination at work. The Gallup Poll announced that Asian Americans have the highest percentage of workers among all races who perceive that they are being discriminated at work. 6 Surely The Next Generation Will Not Face The Same Problem As We Do! So Why Not Just Be Patient And Wait?
n n Let's look at our rate of progress for the period of 6 years from 1995 to 2001. At a 0.5% per year improvement rate in private industries, a 0.75% improvement rate in universities, and a 1% rate in the federal government, AsAms will reach the current national average chance of being promoted to the managerial class in another 75 years! Equal opportunity in about 3 more generations! Look at what is happening with Hispanics and women. They have less then half the distance to climb to equality opportunity than Asian Americans and are climbing at twice our rate of improvement. See how having GROUP political clout can make a difference? I Still Can't Believe It! Why Would American Still Institutions Want To Be In Cahoots With Our Government To Discriminate Against Us?
n The end result we face today is at least partially our own fault. America is a great country and has one of the best political systems. However, all political systems are run by human beings, and human beings are full of frailties. The most common frailty is that human beings tend to accommodate the strong and step on the weak. The initial prejudice against Asian Americans may be caused by the color of our skin, our national origins, and cultural differences. However, the continuation of the very strong discrimination and inequity is at least partly our own fault. While other races and groups organize in order to have the political clout to punish any institution or politician that perpetuates or commits unfairness against them, Asian Americans remain woefully self- or family-centered, ignoring the dire self- familyneed for Asian American GROUP political clout. n n Explanations
Deficits in leadership skills n Discrimination/prejudice
n 7 Qualities in a Leader
Want a person who has strong ambitions to rise, gets job done, energetic and hardworking, commands attention (presence), personable, sociable & poised , direct (doesn't beat around the bush), quick (doesn't take 2 hrs. when 1/2 hr. is adequate), at ease, worldly, confident, can drink a lot but but not show it, doesn't smoke, verbally fluent (face man or woman), tall , slim, well dressed in conservative fashion, sensitive, tough (repertoire--can twist arm), totally (repertoire--can dedicated (even at expense of family), team player, does what's best for corporation, creative leader, not follower, work independently. Complaints
1. "I know I do a very good job as VP. However, I think I've made myself indispensable to my boss so he may be reluctant to promote me." 2. "I have a Chinese name that is very difficult for Americans (i.e. Caucasians) to pronounce or remember. I make them feel uncomfortable. Some of my fellow teachers think I should change my name. Why should I have to change my name?" 3. "As an Asian American woman, others always stereotype me. They think I should be quiet and passive. They don't listen to me." 4. We Asians are too task oriented and we think that if we do a good job, we'll get rewarded. I now know that doing a good job is not enough. We have to form political ties, make friends with the higher- ups, and know about the entire educational system rather than higherlimiting our expertise to teaching" 5. "My English is not very good. I think I have been held back by my English." 6. "I do have trouble speaking out, or asking for a raise, or bragging, especially with my supervisor. I always get mad with myself when I miss an opportunity to get ahead but it is hard for me to promote myself." 7. "There's one particular student in class who gets to me. He's uncooperative and talks back to me. It disrupts the whole class." 8. "My principal is very racist. When he found out I was going to the workshop, he half jokingly said, "Don't plot anything like the Pearl Harbor sneak attack." 9. "I get anxious everytime I have to confront someone about something unpleasant. This occurs even when the person involved works under me. Can I learn to reduce this anxiety?" 10. "Asian's are faced with a dilemma. If we protest discrimination, it antagonizes coworkers. Yet if we don't speak out, we don't get very far." 11. "I tend to hold back from expressing my anger. Then finally, I explode. Once this happened and my principal was shocked. She was so used to my being accepting and nonconfronting that when my anger was finally released, she thought I had overreacted. I'd like to learn how to modulate my anger." Factors Inhibiting Creativity (Ng)
n Personality traits, namely “follows tradition”, “submissive”, “concerned with face”, “obedient”, and “conforming” are not indicative of creativity. Reliance on recitation, instructor-directed work, seatwork, and instructormemorization do little to promote creative thinking. The inability to nurture creative thinking is further compounded by a focus on academic achievement and overcrowded classrooms. Confucian influence in the East has created a focus on filial piety. Children are raised to respect, honor, and obey their parents. They are taught to do nothing that would make parents feel ashamed or disappointed. The focus on filial piety in the East also leads to cognitive conservatism, which causes as a person to "adopt a passive, uncritical and uncreative orientation to learning and to hold fatalistic, superstitious and stereotypical beliefs; as well as to be authoritarian, dogmatic and conformist" n n n 8 Multiple Definitions
n Many ideas reflect the Western bias in regard to what is considered creative. Kirton articulated a theory of creativity style that challenges the view that creative behavior comes in one form. He posited that creative behavior occurs along a continuum from a more adaptive style of creativity, producing original ideas within systems that as a result improve current paradigms, versus a more innovative style of creativity, producing original ideas outside of prevailing thought which as a result threaten existing paradigms. Solutions Solutions
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Realize bicultural skills needed Discrimination learning Learn to say no Rehearse and take chances (face loss) Know what it takes to get ahead total company (not just task oriented) 6. Mentor, networking, 7. Communication, eye contact, spontaneous, social skills 8. Everyone can improve 9 ...
View Full Document
This note was uploaded on 04/19/2011 for the course ASA 3 taught by Professor Sue during the Fall '08 term at UC Davis.
- Fall '08