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midterm_study_guide_fall_2009 - ASA 3 Midterm Review Study...

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ASA 3 Midterm Review Study Guide Tim Fong. The Contemporary Asian American Experience. Pg. 19-38. 1848-1924: First wave of Asian immigrants to U.S. o Chinese: The first large-scale immigration began in 1852. Yet the huge influx in mid-1860s to help work during the Gold Rush and the building transcontinental railroad. 1868 Burlingame Treaty: Free migration and emigration of Chinese to U.S. in exchange for American trade privileges in China Note the bachelor lifestyle Types of work: Agricultural (cleared land, dug canals, planted orchards, harvested crops), manufacturing (shoes, cigars, clothing), small businesses (restaurants, laundries, general stores), domestic services (house boys, cooks, gardeners) 1882 Chinese Exclusion Act: Suspended entry of Chinese laborers for 10 years; other laws eventually passed barring Chinese laborers and their wives permanently o Japanese: How Japanese immigrants’ experience differed from Chinese immigrants’ experience Japanese mostly immigrated to Hawaii, but not to mainland Japanese fully took advantage of agricultural boom Calls for complete Japanese exclusion were blocked and instead, compromise with Japanese government was worked out (Gentleman’s Agreement) due to victory in Russo-Japanese War) Gentleman’s Agreement allowed Japanese women in U.S., which allowed Japanese in U.S. to increase population o Filipino: First group to arrive were students supported by government scholarships Types of work: Agricultural and service laborers; manufacturing; railroad porters; labor union organizers Filipinos lived in American territory (following Spanish-American War in 1898), and therefore, were considered “nationals” that could freely travel in U.S. without restriction High male to female ratio o Korean: Types of work: Plantation labor work, students Picture brides o Indian: Did not work in Hawaii prior to entering the American mainland Extremely high male to female ratio Formed cooperatives, pooled their resources, began independent farming Anti-Asian laws and sentiment o Denial of naturalization rights to Chinese immigrants 1
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o Examples of anti-Asian laws: Foreign Miners Tax, San Francisco tax ordinance on all aliens ineligible for citizenship, 1882 Chinese Exclusion Act, 1913 Alien Land Law and subsequent amendments, 1917 Immigration Act, 1924 National Origin Act, anti-miscegenation laws o Anti-Asian case law: Yick Wo v. Hopkins, Ozawa v. U.S., U.S. v. Thind WWII and the Cold War Era o WWII: Japanese internment During WWII, Franklin Roosevelt passed Executive order 9066. It goal was to relocate Japanese residing in the US to internment camps Contrast with increasingly positive characterization of Chinese immigrants, evidenced by increased employment opportunities outside segregated Chinatown communities Asians in the military Impact of 1945 War Bride’s Act on Asian immigration Repealing of Chinese Exclusion Act in 1943 1946 Luce-Cellar Act o Cold War: Refugee acts of late 1950s and 1960s allowed entrance into U.S. for those
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