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week 1 part2 - Psychological Disorders of Childhood |...

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Psychological Disorders of Childhood | Theories & Causes 1 Theories & Causes Theories of Disorders pre-20th Century __________ - possessed or otherwise influenced by evil spirits or demons Somatogenesis - bodily malfunction or imbalance – Emil Kraepelin (1883) - classification system to establish a biological basis for mental disorders __________ – psychological variables – Freud History - Psychoanalytic Theory Early 20th century Sigmund Freud – Id, ego, _________ – Unconscious conflicts, defense mechanisms – Psychosexual stages (oral, anal, phallic, latency & genital) Anna Freud - children’s symptoms related to developmental ______
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Psychological Disorders of Childhood | Theories & Causes 2 History - Behaviorism 20th century John Watson “Give me a dozen healthy infants … and I’ll guarantee to take any one at random and train him to become any type of specialist I might select - doctor, lawyer, merchant, chief and, yes, even beggar-man and thief, regardless of his talents, penchants, tendencies, abilities, vocations, and race of his ancestors.” -Watson 1930 Thorndike’s Law of Effect • _______ Led to behavioral therapy and behavioral _____________ History - Early Scientific Study of Youth Hall - U. S. – Collected questionnaire data Binet & Simon – ___________ performance testing and norms Binet Hall Causes: An Integrated Approach Biological Influences Emotional Influences Behavioral & Cognitive Influences Family & Cultural Influences Frustrated Parents Biological Influences Low self-esteem Poor academic performance Increased criticism at school Anxiety & worry
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Psychological Disorders of Childhood | Theories & Causes 3 Biological Influences Brain Development • Neurobiology Endocrine System Biological Risk • Neurotransmitters • Genetics Structure of neurons Biological Influences: Brain Development Overabundance of undifferentiated cells _______ grow Genes determine where axons connect “Exuberant _________________” Selective pruning reduces number of connections Neural _________ - differentiation is use-dependent
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Psychological Disorders of Childhood | Theories & Causes 4 Use dependent! Relationship between structure and function __________ shapes the brain Biological Influences: Brain Development Genie Biological Influences: Neurobiology: Brain Stem Functions: Midbrain •_____ supply to muscles Pons •____ sensation & movement Medulla •Breathing •Heartbeat •Digestion Biological Influences: Neurobiology Functions: _____________ •Controls motor coordination Thalamus •Relay station for ______ input Hypothalamus •Regulates behavior & emotion
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Psychological Disorders of Childhood | Theories & Causes 5 Biological Influences: Neurobiology: Limbic System Functions: •Regulates emotional experiences •Regulates expressions •Regulates basic drives •Critical for learning and _______ control Biological Influences: Neurobiology: _________________ Functions: •Regulates, organizes, filters info related to cognition, emotions, _____
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