Lesson_One_and_Test - LESSON 1 Introduction to Logic...

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Section 1: Arguments . Barker, pp. 1-9. ***Read the section, then the following additional comments. For the most part, logic consists of the analysis of arguments, and this course will be no exception. An argument is a form of reasoning. Frequently, it also involves a certain amount of persuasion, but that component can be overstated. Not all forms of reasoning are arguments. And clearly many, many attempts at persuasion do not rely on what a logician would recognize as a sound argument. If the word “argument” evokes images of conflict and emotion for you, you are not thinking of the same kind of thing that logic deals with. In fact, an argument in the logician’s sense can be a very dry and detached thing. At the essence of any argument is a chain of reasoning which goes from “this” is true to that” must be true . In other words, you begin with a thought, idea, or other truth, and you reason that, if this thought is true, then a second thought must be true as well. Most of the time, you start with several thoughts, combine them, and then draw a further thought out of the combination. E.g. One thought: If this is Thursday, I need to take out my trash. A second thought: This is Thursday. From there I infer a third thought: I need to take out my trash. The important thing here is the pattern of reasoning: ####### is true. ******* is true. ^^^^^^ is true. 1 The sign stands for “therefore.” LESSON 1 Introduction to Logic
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We refer to the thoughts which are given at first as premises . The thought which we derive from the premises is the conclusion . There is no legal limit to how many premises an argument may have. An argument may only have one premise, or it may have a dozen. There can be only one natural conclusion to an argument; however, a conclusion can immediately become the premise of a further argument deriving a conclusion. For many people, the hardest part about learning to think logically is simply figuring out what the conclusion of a particular argument is. We all have experienced the frustration when we’ve tried to say something that we thought was important, and then someone focuses on the wrong part of what we said. “You missed my point!” we might say with exasperation. Frequently this happens when someone incorrectly identified the conclusion of our argument; perhaps he or she mistook a premise for the conclusion. ***Prepare for submission Exercises 1 A and B . Examples 1A 1. This is an argument. The premise is “Dogs always like bones.” The conclusion is: “Her dog will like these bones I’ve brought.” 1B 1. 2 + =>3 =>1 4 Section 2: Deduction and Validity , Barker, pp. 12-16. ***Read the section, then the following additional comments. In the first part of this course we are going to occupy ourselves exclusively with
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This note was uploaded on 04/19/2011 for the course PHIL 201E taught by Professor Brentkelly during the Spring '11 term at Taylor University Fort Wayne.

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Lesson_One_and_Test - LESSON 1 Introduction to Logic...

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