s-1 - the knowledge that a speaker/hearer has about her...

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What is Grammar? Two uses of the term “grammar”: prescriptive versus descriptive Two uses of the term “language”: External/extensional versus Internal/intensional (i.e., GRAMMAR ) Some properties of language Infinity Ambiguity Rule governed Why Study Language By studying language we may discover abstract principles that govern its structure and use, principles that are universal by biological necessity and not merely historical accident, that derive from mental characteristics of the species. (N. Chomsky, Reflections on Language , 1975) Prescriptive Vs. Descriptive Prescriptive grammar is a social construct, an artifice set by language pedagogues attempting to establish norms and impose standards (see Pinker chap. 12, “The Language Mavens”) Descriptive grammar is the product of scientific investigation, the attempt to construct a precise model of
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Unformatted text preview: the knowledge that a speaker/hearer has about her language. Prescriptive Rules: • An arbitrary set of conventions dictating how people should talk Descriptive Rules: • The rules that enable us to speak and understand in the first place! What is Grammar ■ “Language” has an external and an internal sense: ■ Externalized-language = speech (behavior) ➤ Continuous blur of sound ■ Internalized-language = grammar (knowledge) ➤ Grammar is in the mind ➤ A mental model to describe formal knowledge/competence of speaker/hearer ■ Extensional versus intensional ■ Two sets can appear to be very different (if you look at their extensional definitions) And yet, the same two sets can appear to be very similar (if you look at their intensional definitions (i.e., the mathematical functions that define them....
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This note was uploaded on 04/19/2011 for the course CJUS 310 taught by Professor Staff during the Fall '09 term at Indiana.

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s-1 - the knowledge that a speaker/hearer has about her...

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