s-6 - down, not up, and that they fall at a certain rate;...

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Structure and Meaning: Compositionality Meaning is compositional o UN+ Lock+able vs. UN + Lock + able When two elements combine to form a syntactic unit their meanings combine to form a semantic unit. Frege’s Principle o The meaning of the whole is a function of the meaning of the parts The relationship between Structure and Meaning Modifier “scope” is structural old men and women [ noun phrase OLD [ noun MEN and WOMEN]] [ noun phrase OLD MEN] and [ noun phrase WOMEN] Mary decided on the boat MARY [ verb phrase DECIDED [on THE BOAT]] MARY [ verb DECIDED on] [THE BOAT] Conclusion: As in morphology, where combining morphemes affects meaning, how we combine words to make larger units (phrases and sentences) determines their meaning The Principle of Compositionality “This is a surprising discovery, though the facts are entirely obvious to us. It is important to learn to be surprised by simple things —for example, by the fact that bodies fall
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Unformatted text preview: down, not up, and that they fall at a certain rate; that if pushed, they move on a flat surface in a straight line, not a circle; and so on. The beginning of science is the recognition that the simplest phenomena of ordinary life raise quite serious problems: Why are they as they are, instead of some different way? NOAM CHOMSKY Phrase Construction friend is a specific N (Noun) that must be built into an NP (Noun Phrase) in order to be a complete unit syntactically: in the sense of being able to further combine semantically: in the sense of being able to refer Phrase Structure Terms Words (lexical items), such as the N oun friend or the V erb knows , are called heads. These heads project more complex structural units that contain them. These higher projections are called phrases, such as N oun P hrase ( NP ) her friend V erb P hrase ( VP ) ate the apple...
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This note was uploaded on 04/19/2011 for the course CJUS 310 taught by Professor Staff during the Fall '09 term at Indiana.

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s-6 - down, not up, and that they fall at a certain rate;...

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