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Unformatted text preview: Grammatical Relations: ■ Subject is defined as the “NP of S” ➤ Subjects can also be in the nominative case ➤ Verbs can also agree with the subject ■ Object is defined as the “NP of VP” ➤ Objects can also be in the accusative case ➤ Verbs can also agree with the object ■ All languages have structurally defined Subjects and Objects, but there is a playoff between these various ways of marking them. Phrase Structure Rules: ■ Phrase Structure rules generate initial (Deep Structure) tree structures ■ Examples ➤ The boy ate the apple . ➤ The boy ate . 1. S + NP VP 2. NP + Det N 3. VP + V NP ■ Lexicon: the D E T , boy N , ate V , apple N Phrase Structure Rules and Recursion ■ A symbol on the r ight of the ar row in one rule (part of the expansion) can later be on the left of the arrow (input) in another: 1. S Þ NP VP 2. VP Þ V S • PS rules can apply in any order, they are simply statements of valid structures....
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This note was uploaded on 04/19/2011 for the course CJUS 310 taught by Professor Staff during the Fall '09 term at Indiana.
- Fall '09