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Unformatted text preview: ■ Closed class of words (unproductive) ➤ Needed for verbs: -ing, -ed, -s, to, will, does, can, should . .. ➤ Needed for sentences: that, if, . .. ■ Purely grammatical (“functional”) ■ Like lexical categories, functional categories also combine into hierachically structured phrases, and also in accordance with the principles X-bar syntax (that is, they obey the same general X-bar rule schema) Functional vs lexical Lexical Functional Contentful Grammatical Open class Closed class Usually stressed Often reduced Damages in wernicke’s aphasia Damaged in broca’s aphasia Acquired first Acquired later major minor Motivation for Functional Categories ■ Functional categories express grammatical information associated with lexical categories ■ Functional categories are needed to allow lexical categories to combine with one another; they are like the “glue” which holds sentences together...
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- Fall '09
- Grammar, universal grammar, lexical categories, hierachically structured phrases, X-bar syntax