s-10 - ■ Closed class of words(unproductive ➤ Needed...

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Principles and Parameters One model of Universal Grammar: There are set principles which all human languages must obey. These are fixed as such within the human mind. Some principles, however, admit a certain amount of variation in how they are instantiated. The set of possible aspects of variation for how some principle works is called its parameters . Universal Phrase Structure All phrases have the same basic structure PRINCIPLE: Words head phrases, in accordance with the structural principles of X-bar syntax, but …. PARAMETER: Grammars have different direction of headedness , choice of left or right English is left-headed Japanese is right-headed Lexical Categories Open class of words (productive) Nouns: dog, girl, crime, picture, ... Adjectives: pretty, intelligent, blue, ... Verbs: swim, tickle, give, know, ... Semantically contentful Combine into hierachically structured phrases, in accordance with X-bar syntax rule schema Functional Categories
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Unformatted text preview: ■ Closed class of words (unproductive) ➤ Needed for verbs: -ing, -ed, -s, to, will, does, can, should . .. ➤ Needed for sentences: that, if, . .. ■ Purely grammatical (“functional”) ■ Like lexical categories, functional categories also combine into hierachically structured phrases, and also in accordance with the principles X-bar syntax (that is, they obey the same general X-bar rule schema) Functional vs lexical Lexical Functional Contentful Grammatical Open class Closed class Usually stressed Often reduced Damages in wernicke’s aphasia Damaged in broca’s aphasia Acquired first Acquired later major minor Motivation for Functional Categories ■ Functional categories express grammatical information associated with lexical categories ■ Functional categories are needed to allow lexical categories to combine with one another; they are like the “glue” which holds sentences together...
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