c-39 - INTELLIGENCE AND CRIME Mental Deficiency Often Cited...

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INTELLIGENCE AND CRIME Mental Deficiency Often Cited as Central Explanation for Criminal Behavior. .. --Early Studies of Intelligence found those Incarcerated to be Mentally Inferior in Comparison to General Population --Fell Under Criticism, until 1970’s, when research suggested relationship between low intelligence and juvenile delinquency. --Important to understand history of intelligence tests and their limitations to assess this research. 1. Alfred Binet and the Search for Intelligence French Psychologist Used Intelligence Testing as a way to locate retarded children in Paris schools Purpose to identify youth who could be helped by focused attention Intelligence test consisted of set of tasks in ascending order of difficulty; age level assigned to each task Age level of last test able to perform = mental age I.Q. Score = Mental Age divided by Chronological Age * 100 (IQ = Intelligence Quotient) Binet Rejected Idea that Intelligence is Fixed and Innate (Inborn) Quality 2. I.Q. Tests Popularized in United States by H. Goddard of the New Jersey School for the Feeble Minded Convinced that Intelligence was fixed and inborn Test to be used to sort people into appropriate social roles
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c-39 - INTELLIGENCE AND CRIME Mental Deficiency Often Cited...

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