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c-21 - • Peer approval • Coping means for shame fear or...

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SUBCULTURAL THEORIES Differential Opportunity Theory Cloward and Ohlin Adapt strain theory as an explanation for gang delinquency Argue that opportunities (both legitimate and illegitimate ) are not available to all. Cloward and Ohlin Adapted Notions of Strain to Explain Juvenile Delinquency 1. What explains and differentiates criminal subcultures? Here, the growth and development of gangs. 2. Answer lies in the strain between wants and needs Delinquents lack opportunities for success through conventional means. 3. Like-minded "failures" join to form criminal subculture... CATEGORIES OF YOUTH STATUS WEALTH Type I + + Type II + - Type III - + Type IV - - Promote success values through delinquency
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Unformatted text preview: • Peer approval • Coping means for shame, fear, or guilt 4. However, illegitimate opportunities are not available to all 5. Types of collective responses available to blocked opportunities: A. Criminal Gangs • Training ground for adult criminality • Largely crime for gain 1. Organized Crime 2. Drug Markets 3. Prostitution • But some areas are not organized for such activity. Hence. .. B. Conflict Gangs • Focus on integrity and honor • Violence as a reputation • Likely in areas of decay and instability C. Retreatist Gang • "Double Failures" • Detached and removed from environment through: 1. Drugs 2. Alcohol 3. Music...
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