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col - NECESSARY NUTRIENTS AND DEFICIENCY DISEASES VITAMINS...

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NECESSARY NUTRIENTS AND DEFICIENCY DISEASES VITAMINS WATER SOLUBLE: excess is excreted . 1. Vitamin C or ascorbic acid: scurvy 2. Vitamin B1 or thiamine: beriberi (rice) 3. Niacin: pellagra (maize) 4. Folate: neural tube defects 5. Vitamin B12 or cyanocobalamin: pernicious anemia FAT SOLUBLE: excess is stored, may be toxic 6. Vitamin A, carotenes: night blindness 7. Vitamin D: rickets, osteomalacia ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS 1. Valine 2. Leucine 3. Isoleucine 4. Threonine 5. Methionine 6. Phenylalanine 7. Tryptophan 8. Lysine ESSENTIAL FATTY ACIDS—linoleic acid< MINERALS 1. Calcium and phosphorus in bone: osteomalacia 2. Zinc 3. Sodium [contemp. Diets rich in this] 4. Chloride 5. Potassium [contemp. Diets low in this] 6. Iron: Iron deficiency anemia 7. Iodine: goiter, endemic cretinism ENERGY : marasmus, kwashiorkor Fats, carbohydrates, and proteins are ALL used for energy measured in calories. One Calorie=Kcal=1000 calories A calorie=heat needed to raise 1cc water 1 o C Rose Frisch: CRITICAL FAT HYPOTHESIS 10 percent body fat is required for menarche, fertility and lactation
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