col-3 - E013: The Semiotics of Advertising Final Review...

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E013: The Semiotics of Advertising Final Review This worksheet is meant to help you review for the final exam. It is not exhaustive, so be sure to study your notes as well. Good luck! Part I. Definitions Define the following terms: 1) signifier – the form the sign takes 2) signified – the meaning of the sign 3) representamen – same as signifier / the form of the sign 4) referent/object – the actual object referred to 5) interpretant – the meaning we get from the sign, close to Saussure’s signified 6) natural – some sort of inherent connection between the signifier and signified, as in a resemblance (photo) or a casual relationship (smoke means fire, footprint means person has walked) 7) arbitrary – purely conventional (created for use by humans) a group of people decided this means this -> most words in human languages 8) symbolic – means the same thing as arbitrary; conventional / learned 9) iconic – resembles the meaning (photos, drawings) onomatopoeias 10) indexical – direct link between signifier and signified, implies the meaning (prints, smoke, symptoms) 11) paradigmatic choice – the choices or options that can be substituted for each other 12) syntagmatic association – the items that are associated with each other / relationships between choices **Types of Syntagmatic Relationships** 1) Spatial – arrangement of visual elements 2) Sequential – signs in temporal or spatial sequence 3) Conceptual – Association of Ideas 13) narrative – a special and important type of sequential syntagmatic relationship / consists of: Abstract – initial sum up what the story is about Orientation – characters and setting Complication Action – the plot/the problem Result or Resolution – how the story came out/what happened Coda – moral (buy this then this will happen to you) Evaluation – the narrator is commenting on the narrative (“I can’t believe I am telling you this”) – can come at any part of the setup 14) metaphor – X is Y 15) metonymy - suggests something by something associated with it 16) synecdoche – a special type of metonymy that involves substitution of part for a whole or vice versa
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17) irony – the literal meaning is undercut by a secondary (and if the irony is successful, obvious) meaning / same thing means something else / part for whole 18) radical realism – there is an objective reality and signs correspond to that reality (reality does not depend on human interpretation it corresponds directly to reality) 19) radical idealism – there is no objective reality, only representation (reality doesn’t exist/human beings have created a reality due to our interpretations) 20) spatial syntagmatic relationship - arrangement of visual elements 21) conceptual syntagmatic relationship - Association of Ideas 22) sequential syntagmatic relationship - signs in temporal or spatial sequence 23) binary – on/off, pregnant/not pregnant, male/female, dead/alive two possible choices if not one must be the other
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col-3 - E013: The Semiotics of Advertising Final Review...

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