SP10_03 - Matter and Matter anything that occupies space...

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Click to edit Master subtitle style Matter and Minerals Matter – anything that occupies space with a mass Any solid, liquid or gas All Matter made of atoms. Nucleus – Protons (+) Neutrons (0) Electron Cloud – Electrons (-)
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Atomic Structure Electrons found in distinct energy levels (shells) Outer shell involved in bonding
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Element s An element is defined its specific number of protons (known as its atomic number)
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Bonding and Ions Bonding occurs because elements want to stablize Need to fill outer electron shell During bonding electrons are exchanged If an element loses or gains an electron it becomes ion Negative ions (gains e-) = anion
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Types of Bonds Ionic bonds Electrons transferred Produces ions
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Types of Bonds Covalent bonds Electrons shared
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Covalent and Ionic bonds Strongest bonds Weak conductor High melting points Hardest minerals
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Types of Bonds Metallic bonds – extreme electron sharing Electrons move freely between atoms Accounts for high conductivity in metals Makes metals malleable
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Crystallizatio n Solid with ordered, repetitive atomic structure Most natural solids are crystalline All minerals are crystalline
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Minerals The building blocks of rocks Defined as any: Naturally occurring Inorganic Solid Specific chemical composition Crystalline structure All five properties are necessary
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Minerals – Physical Properties Composition and crystal structure affect mineral properties Since a specific mineral carries the same makeup their physical properties are uniform
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SP10_03 - Matter and Matter anything that occupies space...

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