Expt 5 - Reactions and Solubility - FA 2009

Expt 5 - Reactions and Solubility - FA 2009 - REACTIONS AND...

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REACTIONS AND SOLUBILITY ADDITIONAL READING The concepts in this experiment are also discussed in sections 4.5 – 4.7 of Principles of Chemistry – A Molecular Approach , by Tro. ABSTRACT This experiment is divided into two parts. Students should work individually. In Part A you will prepare aqueous solutions consisting of acids, bases, or salts, and in Part B observe the results of mixing these solutions together. From your observations you will report which mixtures yield a reaction and write a balanced chemical equation, list the spectator ions involved in the system, and write a net ionic equation. In Part C you will be given the same solutions you used in Part B; however, in numbered bottles. You will attempt to identify each unknown solution by mixing it with the other unknowns and comparing your observations to those obtained in Part B. BACKGROUND REACTION TYPES Reactions can be categorized into five different classes: synthesis, decomposition, single- displacement, double-displacement and combustion. It is useful to classify reactions in this way because it can assist you in the prediction of products. For example, if a reaction has only one reactant, it is likely to be a decomposition reaction; knowing this, you can predict the possible products. An example of each of the categories is given below. Synthesis : In a synthesis reaction, multiple reagents come together to form a single product. One of the most important examples of a synthesis reaction is the fixation of nitrogen (equation 1), which is used to make commercial fertilizers. AB B A + N 2 (g) + 3 H 2 (g) Æ 2 NH 3 (g) (1) Decomposition : A decomposition reaction is the reverse of a synthesis reaction; a single reactant is broken down in to two or more products. In a previous experiment, you carried out the decomposition of copper(II) sulfate pentahydrate through a process called dehydration. Another example (equation 2) is a decomposition reaction used in explosives and fireworks. B A AB + 2 KClO 3 (s) Æ 2 KCl(s) + 3 O 2 (g) (2) Single Displacement : A single displacement reaction involves a more reactive element displacing a less reactive one. In equation 3 , zinc is much more reactive than copper; therefore, it replaces the copper(II) ion in cupric chloride. A XB X AB + + CuCl 2 (aq) + Zn(s) Æ Cu(s) + ZnCl 2 (aq) (3) Double Displacement : A double displacement reaction involves the exchange of the anions and cations of two compounds. A reaction takes place between compounds AB and XY; AB and XY are usually aqueous ionic compounds (or acids) consisting of aqueous ions (A + and B , X + and Y ). When a double displacement reaction occurs, the cations and anions switch partners, resulting in the formation of two new ionic compounds AY and XB. This type of reaction usually results in the formation of a precipitate, a gas, or water. XB
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This note was uploaded on 04/19/2011 for the course CHEM 1033 taught by Professor Price during the Fall '10 term at Temple.

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Expt 5 - Reactions and Solubility - FA 2009 - REACTIONS AND...

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