Earthquakes - Earthquakes (L15 & V17 / IP-C) Eric Marti/AP...

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Eric Marti/AP Photo Earthquakes Earthquakes (L15 & V17 / IP-C)
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Earthquakes Earthquakes earthquake : rocks breaking and movement of rock along break fault : locus of the earthquake movement faults come at all scales, mm to separation of lithospheric plates ( e.g. , San Andreas).
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Elastic Rebound Theory Elastic Rebound Theory Stress is applied to rock Strain energy builds up for rock does not break at once Eventually, rock ruptures and Energy is released as heat & SEISMIC WAVES
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ELASTIC REBOUND THEORY
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G.K. Gilbert Fig. 18.2 1906 San Francisco Earthquake 1906 San Francisco Earthquake
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G.K. Gilbert Fig. 18.2 Fault Trace Fault Offset (~2.5m) 1906 San Francisco Earthquake 1906 San Francisco Earthquake
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Earthquake terms Earthquake terms focus : site of initial rupture epicenter : point on surface above the focus
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Fig. 18.3 Seismic Waves Radiate from the Seismic Waves Radiate from the Focus of an Earthquake Focus of an Earthquake
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2 KINDS OF SEISMIC WAVES 2 KINDS OF SEISMIC WAVES BODY WAVES - WAVES THAT MOVE THROUGH THE BODY OF THE EARTH. SURFACE WAVES - WAVES THAT MOVE ALONG THE SURFACE OF THE EARTH.
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Two kinds of Two kinds of body waves body waves P waves (compressional) 6–8 km/s. Parallel to direction of movement (slinky), also called primary waves. Similar to sound waves. S waves (shear) 4–5 km/s. Perpen- dicular to direction of movement (rope); also called secondary waves. Result from the shear strength of materials. Do not pass through liquids.
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Seismic body waves
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2 KINDS OF SURFACE WAVES 2 KINDS OF SURFACE WAVES LOVE - ground shakes sideways RALEIGH - rolling motion These waves travel slower than s- waves and are formed as p- and s- wave energy hits the surface.
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LOVE WAVES RALEIGH WAVES
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Seismology Seismology Study of the propagation of mechanical energy through the Earth; released by earthquakes and explosions. When energy is released in this fashion, waves of motion (like the effect of a pebble tossed into a pond) are set up in the rocks surrounding the source of the energy (the focus).
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Seismic waves Waves are started because of initial tension or compression in the rock. Instruments used to measure
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This note was uploaded on 04/20/2011 for the course GG 103 taught by Professor Herrero-bervera during the Summer '10 term at University of Hawaii, Manoa.

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Earthquakes - Earthquakes (L15 & V17 / IP-C) Eric Marti/AP...

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