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Ch 56 Hawaiis Biodiversity - Lecture 56 Hawaiis...

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Lecture 56 Hawaii’s Biodiversity
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Environmental Diversity Extremely wide range of habitats temperature moisture soils vegetation
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Environmental Diversity Cold & Dry Cool & Dry Warm & Wet Hot & Wet Hot & Very Dry Warm & Very Dry Warm & Dry trades inversion
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Facts: 2,500 miles of ocean separate North America from the Hawaiian Islands. 3,500 miles of ocean between the small Marianas Islands and the Hawaiian chain. The Hawaiian chain has never been connected to a land mass.
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How then, did plants and animals cross the large oceanic distance to arrive on the Hawaiian islands? Transportation through the air Attached to Birds Fruits eaten by Birds Drifting in Seawater
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Hawaii’s Flowering Plants Long Distance Dispersal Wind, Water, & Wings Theory The original colonist plants arrives in the following ways: water 23% wind 2% birds 75%
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14.3% of native flowering plants adapted to oceanic drift. Adaptations for dispersal in seawater: Seeds or fruits capable of floating. Seeds or plant parts must be able to resist seawater for weeks. Must arrive alive on beach and be able to grow there. Pandanus tectorius
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Includes plants that reproduce by means of spores such as ferns, mosses, algae, and lichen Spore size : Spores so small that a line of a thousand of them end-to-end would be an inch long. Fern spores would be more successful at reaching Hawaiian island then seeds of flowering plants. Adenophorus periens
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1.4% of the 255 hypothetical original flowering plants were dispersed by air flotation Ohia lehua tree has seeds small enough to suggest dispersal through the air. 1 st to appear after a lava flow Metrosideros polymorpha
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Insects. Passive flight and small body size of insects accounts for their dispersal to the island. Yellow-faced bee Nesoprosopis pollinates
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Embedded in mud on feet or other parts of birds Sticky substances Mechanical devices (barbs, hooks, bristles) Pacific golden plover
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Most effective means of seed dispersal to the Hawaiian Islands. Accounts for dispersal of an estimated 39% of the 255 hypothetical original plants. Tetraplasandra flynii Has hairy gray fruits
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migration migration Flowering Plant Dispersal by Birds
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Birds Travel through active flight such as migratory birds, marine birds, shore birds and waterfowl. Land birds underrepresented. Insects Passive flight and small size Storms Air currents Migration
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Fish Freshwater fish, gobie family (diadromous or amphidromous)) Drift as larvae (long-lasting stage) Marine inverts Drift as larva Ocean currents and gyre Most from Northwest Pacific Islands act as stepping stones
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Amphidromous- migrate to and from the sea but do not use the ocean for reproduction
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Anchialine pond
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