This preview shows pages 1–3. Sign up to view the full content.
This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.View Full Document
Unformatted text preview: Atomic Structure Radioactivity History of discovery Becquerel Discovery of radioactivity Curie Extraction of radium and polonium Rutherford Study the nature of , and radiation Nature of radioactivity particle fast moving helium nuclei 5% of speed of light particle very fast moving electron up to 99% speed of light radiation high energy EM wave 100% speed of light Origin of radioactivity particle replusion among proton binding force between proton and neutron lowering of p:n ratio particle instablility of neutron when isolated increasing of p:n ration radiation Nature state of atoms after the big bang / nucelus formation re-orientation of the spinning proton Nuclear Reaction Natural decay Meaning of Half-life Constant Half-life First order reaction Independent of temp. Artificial transmutation Use of Radioactive isotope Leak Detection Geiger-Muller counter Bio-tracer I-131 (thyroid disease) P-32 (metabolism of plant) Radiotherapy I-131 (thyroid cancer) Co-60 / Cs-137 (tumor) Carbon-14 dating Nuclear power Nuclear bomb Mass of an atom Mass spectrometer Construction Vaporization chamber Ionization chamber Accelerating plates Deflecting magnetic field Detector Recorder Vacuum Pump Working principle - response to m/e ratio To determine the ionization energy of an atom Interpretation of mass spectrum Determination of isotopic mass Determination of atomic mass Determination of molecular mass Determination of molecular structure Relative isotopic mass The relative mass of a particular isotope in C-12 scale where C-12 isotope is defined to have exactly 12 units of mass. Relative atomic mass The weighted average of the relative isotopic masses for a particular element in C-12 scale according to their natural abundance Relative molecular mass The relative mass of a molecule where that the value is the same as the sum of relative atomic mass of all atoms present in the molecule. Development of atomic model Democritus Idea of atom introduced No experimental evidence Dalton Atom is the smallest unit of matter and is not breakable With experimental evidence from the study of gas Goldstein Invention of cathode ray tube Thomson Behaviour of cathode ray in magnetic and electric field Negatively charged fast moving particle Invention of the word "electron". Raisin pudding model of atom Atom is no longer unbreakable Rutherford Gold foil scattering experiment The idea of presence of tiny nucleus Chadwick Discovery of neutron Study of radioactivity The idea of nucleus is breakable 1. Atomic Structure.mmap - 2005/5/23 - Mole Concept How much is one mole ? How many ? Definition Avogadro constant (Experimental measurement required) How heavy ? Molar mass Carbon-12 Scale How large ? Molar volume Molar volume of a gas r.t.p. s.t.p. Avogadro's law Charges Relationship between Current I, Amount of charge Q and time t i.e Q=It Faraday's Laws of electrolysis 1st Law m Q 2nd Law m 1/n Charges carried by 1 mole of electron Faraday constant 1 F = 96500 C Behaviour of Ideal gas Boyle's Law P...
View Full Document