40._Peak_OilREV

40._Peak_OilREV - 40 Peak Oil 2 Air Pollution Smog Acid...

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Unformatted text preview: 40. Peak Oil 2 Air Pollution Smog Acid Precipitation Ozone Depletion Climate Change Greenhouse Gases CO 2 3 4 EPA Statistics: Gas Mowers represent 5% of U.S. Air Pollution FACT: one hour of mowing is the equivalent of driving 350 miles in terms of volatile organic compounds. Fact: One gas mower spews 87 lbs. of the greenhouse gas CO 2 , and 54 lbs. of other pollutants into the air every year. Fact: Over 17 million gallons of gas are spilled each year refueling lawn and garden equipment – more oil than was spilled by the Exxon Valdez. 5 Major Themes “ We've embarked on the beginning of the last days of the age of oil. Embrace the future and recognize the growing demand for a wide range of fuels or ignore reality and slowly — but surely — be left behind. ”-- Mike Bowlin, chairman and CEO of ARCO Last 7 years; oil demand growth outpacing capacity growth Many alternatives most carbon intensive An Inconvenient Reality: Hydrocarbon Society is incompatible in a world with low carbon emissions Something has to give but what? 6 Hubbert’s Peak Annual U.S. Crude oil Production, 1860-2004 0.00 0.50 1.00 1.50 2.00 2.50 3.00 3.50 4.00 1860187218841896190819201932194419561968198019922004 Billion barrels 7 Deffeyes 2005 Campbell 2010 Bentley 2017 & > UBS 2025 Time Rate of Production CERA, > 2030 ; EIA > 2040 The H ubber t Peak for Wor ld Oil Theor y: It is widely accepted that oil is a finite resource; there are basic laws which describe the depletion of any finite resource: * Production starts at zero; * Production then rises to a peak which can never be surpassed; * Once the peak has been passed, production declines until the resource is depleted. These simple rules were first described in the 1950s by Dr. M. King Hubbert, and apply to any relevant system, including the depletion of the world’s petroleum resources. The rate of production of a natural resource can be plotted on a graph against time. This gives a picture of the lifetime of that resource… World Oil Production to Date • It is important to note that the point of maximum production (known as the H ubber t Peak) tends to coincide with the midpoint of depletion of the resource under consideration. In the case of oil, this means that when we reach the Hubbert Peak, • we will have used half of all the r ecover able oil that ever existed on our planet . • When viewing a graph of oil production (millions of barrels per day, Mbd) against time (Years), the area under the curve corresponds to cumulative production - the area under a world oil production graph from 1970 to 1980 would give the total amount of oil produced between the years 1970 and 1980. Thus the area under a curve describing the total lifetime of a natural resource corresponds to the total amount of that resource that was ever and will ever be available for production. This quantity is known as the Ultimate for that resource....
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40._Peak_OilREV - 40 Peak Oil 2 Air Pollution Smog Acid...

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