19._The_Allies__War_Revised_S08 - 19 The Allies’ War 1...

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Unformatted text preview: 19. The Allies’ War 1 Major Themes International cooperation in oil allocation First full scale gasoline rationing Growing concern about supply Mobility was critical in Allies advance Could Patton have shortened the war? 2 Britain’s Oil Position 1940: Churchill became Prime Minister 1937: Special committee examined possibility of Britain adopting an “oil from coal” synthetic fuels strategy 85% of domestic refining marketing in hands of three companies: Shell, Anglo­Iranian, Jersey’s British subsidiary Strategy was rejected – importing through many ports was deemed less vulnerable than easily bombed hydrogenation plants 3 Deterding Sways Under Nazi Beliefs British worried about the future of the Royal Dutch/Shell Group Risk that it could pass under the Nazi sway Deterding developed two infatuations: In 1935, Deterding initiated discussions with German government about Shell providing oil However, lost a lot of control in the Shell group Died in 1939, 6 months before the war, and most of his stocks were passed throughout British holders, thus reducing the risk of Nazi control 4 A young German woman Adolf Hitler Britain’s Oil Status As soon as war began British oil companies merged activities into Petroleum Board – basically created a national monopoly Issues facing Britain: British supplies curtailed from Japan invading Southeast Asia Rumanian oil went to the Germans The Germans had captured France’s oil stockpile Rationing was imposed on Britain, until no oil was used recreationally – big boom in bicycling Threat of German invasion shutdown 17,000 5 Americans Fuel Britain’s Needs March 1941: Lend Lease instituted Neutrality legislation lifted to help loosen restrictions on ability to ship supplies to Britain 6 Removed the problem of finance as a constraint on American supply to Britain Oil could be lent and repaid later The Oil Czar In May 1941, Harold Ickes was appointed to additional post of Petroleum Coordinator for National Defense Ickes had to turn around the industry that was coping with surplus to one that would maximize output and avert shortage Once again, nation’s top oil man – became known as the Oil Czar He had a huge liability: Oil industry detested him However, worked closely and pragmatically with industry, succeeding in disarming the hostility and cooperating effectively to mobilize the industry 7 The Battle of the Atlantic German U­boats disorganized shipping, one of their favorite targets were oil tankers Success of these attacks terrified the British By July 1941, Britain only had 5 weeks of motor stocks left and only 2 months of fuel for the Royal Navy Number of tankers sunk in the first 3 months of 1942 were almost 4 times the number built Tankers and other ships were urged to hug the coast U.S. had neglected antisubmarine warfare and was unprepared for it American cities’ bright lights also helped sinking ships easier 8 U­boat Campaign: Successful Germans had two significant advantages: Changed their code procedures so that British couldn’t read their U­boat signals Broke ciphers that governed movement of Anglo­ American convoys Improved U­boats U.S. lost 25% of its total tanker tonnage in 1942 In 1943, the defeat of German U­boats was made a top priority Yet, in March U­boats sank 108 ships 9 Battle became even worse for the Americans U.S. Attempts to Improve Situation Ickes mobilized nation’s railway tanks to rush supplies to East Coast Also attempted to mobilize a voluntary conservative campaign However, conservation program was a flop Convoys were instituted along the East Coast to increase protection 10 10 Pipelines to the Rescue Pipelines were built from Texas to East Coast Big Inch – construction started in Aug 1942 and finished by end of 1943; 1,254 miles long Little Inch, built April 1943 to March 1944, – stretched 1,475 miles to carry gasoline and other refined products from the Southwest to East Coast Both carried 42% of all oil 11 11 Battle of Atlantic Finally Over Decisive shift in the battle Allies thoroughly broke the U­boat codes Allies also successfully closed off their own convoy ciphers to the Germans Americans added new capability to counteroffensive capability to the convoy system After 45 months of deadly warfare and mounting danger, the Battle of the Atlantic was over 12 12 In May 1943, 30% of the U­boats at sea were lost – by end of May U­boats had to withdraw to safer areas Allied convoys carrying vital oil etc could now cross the Atlantic in reasonable safety Improved radar and development of long range aircraft Submarines War & the Big Inch How central was oil in the war? Why do we consider oil a strategic commodity ? What did you think of Tokyo Rose? QuickTime™ and a YUV420 codec decompressor are needed to see this picture. 13 13 U.S. Increases Production From 1940­1945: America’s overall production increased from 3.7 million barrels per day to 4.7 million barrels per day Between Dec 1941 – Aug 1945: Allies consumed 7 billion barrels of oil, 6 billion came from the United States 14 14 Rationing Efforts made to get industrial users to switch from oil to coal President Roosevelt took strong interest in the potential of America’s largely underutilized natural gas resources However, gasoline was focus of contention Administration wanted to ration gasoline, but there was a lot of public outcry – used the argument that rationing gasoline would decrease demand for rubber, and thus make more rubber supplies available for troops Bernard Baruch placed in charge of lobbying to congress to implement the nationwide rationing to conserve rubber 15 15 Gasoline Rationing Houses: 65 oF day, 55 oF night Alphabetical stickers placed in windshields – status symbol for motorists X – doctors, clergymen, some repairmen, and gov’t officials A – “basic” ration, what most people got Ban on gasoline for auto racing “nonessential driving” banned Avg. consumption per passenger vehicle was 30% less in 1943 than in 1941 16 16 System of Oil Distribution for Allies Crude oil produced from American Southwest Refined and moved to the Northeast by ship, tank, or pipeline Transported across the Atlantic and delivered to wherever it was needed In the UK and the Middle East: British filled Americans’ gas tanks In the Pacific and North Africa: U.S. had responsibility for fueling all sources As difficult and contentious as these matters were, evolved into a system that served the Allies fairly well 17 17 Oil: Essential in WWII Oil played a significant role for the Army A number of innovations were created to facilitate the use and flow of petroleum Biggest technical disappointment: PLUTO WWI: static war (4,000 hp) WWII: War of motion (187,000 hp) At the peaks, the American forces in Europe used one hundred times more gasoline in WWII than in WWI Pipeline Under The Ocean 18 18 A Simple Innovation 5­gallon gasoline can Based design off of captured German cans Led to common nicknames: “jerrycan” and “blitz can” Improvements: internal spout (to keep out dirt) to replace the use of funnels 19 19 Other Innovations All­purpose motor fuel All­purpose diesel fuel Development of 100 octane fuel for better aircraft performance The Red Ball Express Greater bursts of speed, more power, quicker takeoff, longer range, greater maneuverability Used catalytic cracking 20 20 By spring 1944, pendulum was swinging in Allies favor Attack on Normandy June 6, 1944 (D­Day): Allied troops hit the beaches of Normandy, opening up the invasion of Western Europe July 25, 1944: Allied armies finally burst through the German ring Allies in Italy which quit the war; Russians driving in from east Germans, disorganized and undersupplied, fell back No force moved more hotly than the Third Army under General Patton, Jr. 21 21 General George Patton, Jr. Nickname: “Old Blood­and­Guts” Engendered fierce loyalty in the troops under his command Eisenhower believed that he failed to see the big picture A master of mobile warfare as Rommel Died in Dec. 1945, 8 months after the fighting in Europe, in an accident on a German road 22 22 Patton believed that if he was given more gasoline, he would be able to break into Germany in 10 days Eisenhower gave the fuel to the US First Army in support of British 21st Army Group under General Montgomery Could Patton have done it? Could have been open to counter­attack Was it worth a try? The Unforgiving Minute Could have saved many lives (concentration camps were executing millions at this time) ¾ of million casualties in liberating Western Europe occurred after the Sept. check on Patton’s advance Could have prevented the Soviets from occupying Germany & Eastern Europe 23 23 Video: Allies War in Europe QuickTime™ and a YUV420 codec decompressor are needed to see this picture. How is gasoline different during war? What did you think of Patton? Did Eisenhower make the right decision? 24 24 ...
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