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Unformatted text preview: 9. The Blood of Victory 9.
The Role of Oil in World War I Major Themes Transformative impacts of internal combustion engine Emergence of technology in waging war Access & control of oil was critical to survival & decisive in World War I Oil prices can rise very quickly Inelastic demand Industry supply has long lead times 2 The Outbreak of World War WWI Expected to be short but prolonged An unmitigated disaster that led to WWI; why and what? Many reasons Blunder, arrogance, stupidity, rivalry, secular religion of nationalism, power Accumulated tensions Austro Hungarian, Russian, and Turkish empires Ambitions of German Reich Previous wars, men & horses, WWI men & machines (oil) Each horse required 10x the food of each man! 3 World War I Combatants 4 Taxi Armada 2 million Germans, within 40 miles of Paris General Joseph Gallieni, “comedian,” but a genius French fought hard & the Germans retreated Gallieni demonstrated military value of motorized transport Ordered all 3000 Paris taxicabs commandeered Paid by the meter or on a flat rate?—put the flag down! 5 Technology in War Fighting devolved into a trench warfare British turned to technology to break the stalemate Designed a new vehicle Churchill’s Navy funded the project, code named “tank” Long, senseless, bloody war of attrition 6 Tanks & Motorized Transport Suddenly speed & mobility became possible Moved on traction, impervious to machine guns and barbed wires Amplified the devastation Eventually more than 13 million dead during World War I Victory of truck over the locomotive
7 Strategic Importance of the Air Advantages Another reason to maintain access to petroleum products. Birds eye view of the battlefield (reconnaissance and observation) Bomb enemy positions & airplanes. 8 Aviation Technology Fighter planes Germans used Zeppelins & Strategic Bombers War constantly pushed innovation Larger numbers, faster, better Greater lethality Much faster 9 British Access to Persian Oil Turk’s were threatening Abadan refinery British troops pushed them out & captured Basra The scene would be repeated some years later Wanted to take Baghdad but defeated by Turks Finally succeeded in 1917 Secured safety of friendly local rulers including the Amir of Kuwait 10 “Hell-Fire Jack”- man with Hell-Fire sledgehammer sledgehammer Rumanian oil Germany advanced Britain denied their Prize w/ Colonel John Norton Griffiths, “Hellfire Jack” General Ludendorff, “We must attribute our shortages in part to him.” Restoration “made just the difference between shortage & collapse.” But only for a time. 11 Systematically destroyed 70 refineries and 8,000 tons of crude Advance on Baku Germans signed peace treaty with Revolutionary Russia Turks took up effort & advanced on Baku Germans feared success by Turks will cause destruction of oil fields British came up from Persia & stopped them Ploy to get Baku oil But locals opposed Lenin and Stalin 12 Video: Legacy of World War I QuickTime™ and a YUV420 codec decompressor are needed to see this picture. 13 Discussion What role did oil play in the war? What were the major lessons from World War I? 14 Anglo-Persian’s War Effort Despite problems Abadan developed into a great refinery, driven by military demand 1916: AngloPersian meeting 1/5 of British Navy’s entire oil needs Charles Greenway had two objectives: Buy out British Petroleum to be integrated Turn AngloPersian into the oil champion of the British empire Once again, tried to revive the “Shell menace” RD/Shell disloyalty; making profits from Germany; becoming a serious National menace Charges were both untrue and unfair Overplayed his hand so much that he made many in parliament anti AngloPersian 15 Royal Dutch Shell’s Effort Toluol for TNT from coal vs. oil Navy not interested even with evidence of German TNT from Borneo crude Marcus Samuel’s scheme Shell also served as an “oil” quartermaster for the British war effort Stole plant in Rotterdam in neutral Netherlands Rebuilt in Somerset in weeks Daring & brilliant 16 The “Dearth of Petrol” Growing demand/shortage German UBoats Submarine campaign Higher prices Allies formed InterAllied Petroleum Conference USA, Brit., Fr, It. Standard & RD/Shell ran it New businessgovernment cooperation! UK pleasure driving ban First US Energy Czar appointed Crude Oil Prices, 1900-1920
3.50 3.00 2.50 2.00 Dollars of the Day per barrel 1.50 1.00 0.50 0.00 1900 1902 1904 1906 1908 1910 1912 1914 1916 1918 1920 Dollars of the Day Constant 2004 $ 35.00 30.00 25.00 20.00 15.00 10.00 5.00 0.00 2004 Dollars per barrel Appeal for “Gasolineless Sundays” in US Mark Requa, Fuel Oil Administrator 17 Video QuickTime™ and a YUV420 codec decompressor are needed to see this picture. 18 Discussion What was the “shell” that hit Germany the hardest? What was Marcus Samuels’ enduring legacy? What was Deterding’s legacy? How did Deterding view the 20th century? 19 Peace Armistice was signed on Nov 11,1918 Lord Curzon: “The Allied cause had floated to victory upon a wave of oil.” Bérenger of France: “As oil had been the blood of war, so it would be the blood of the peace” 20 ...
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- Spring '07