8._The_Fateful_Plunge_Revised_S08 - 8. The Fateful Plunge...

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Unformatted text preview: 8. The Fateful Plunge The Conversion of the British The Navy from Coal to Oil Navy 1 Major Themes British needed to catch up with the British German & American Navies German Benefits of oil conversion in navy Strategic access to oil Interplay between strategic, national, Interplay & commercial interests in political theatre theatre 2 The Oil Maniac Admiral John Fisher helped modernize Royal Navy Royal Saw Germany as a Saw major threat major Industrial Industrial powerhouse powerhouse Growing military Growing power power 3 Kaiser’s Germany 4 Early Oil Experiment HMS Hannibal HMS disaster in 1903 bitter defeat for Fisher & Samuel Fisher Just after Fisher met Just D’Arcy while at a spa in Marienbad, Bohemia Bohemia D’Arcy saw the D’Arcy potential market potential 5 Fisher as First Sea Lord In 1904 John Fisher - First In Sea Lord of the Royal Navy “Wake up England!” The key of course to all of The this was creating oil fueled vessels as opposed to coal vessels Could be at sea longer Could Move more quickly than a Move coal powered ship coal Require less personnel to Require operate the ship operate Maneuverability 6 The Guns vs. Butter Bitter Debate Backdrop of Race Social & labor unrest Social Domestic conflicts of Domestic financial and budgetary constraints constraints The Big Navy The coalition/”Navalists” vs. coalition/”Navalists” The “Economists” Build social programs Maintain the peace 7 Churchill’s Change Churchill’s Initially supported AngloGerman naval German agreement July 1911 German July gunboat , the Panther, sailed into Moroccan port of Agadir port Offered First Lord of the Offered Admiralty & changed his Admiralty stance Concluded Germany Concluded meant to make war meant 8 Fisher Advises Churchill John Fisher retired and John became Churchill’s unofficial advisor as the two men had met through the Navy and become good friends. good Fisher pushed Churchill Fisher to convert the fleet to oil power and pointed out that oil was more efficient and cheaper. 9 Coal to Oil Fisher arranged for M. Samuel and Churchill to Fisher meet to make a case for oil meet Churchill then conducted a study to determine Churchill the advantages of a naval fleet powered via oil versus coal versus Oil allowed faster ships, why? Greater rapidity in getting up to speed Oil allowed advantages in operation and manning of Oil the fleet the Oil allowed greater radius of action Oil could be refilled at sea Oil greatly reduced the stress, time, exhaustion, Oil manpower, and discomfort that went with coaling manpower, Bottom-line: More gun-power and speed for less size 10 Bottom-line: 10 and cost and The Naval Programs The three naval programs of 1912, 1913, and 1914 The created a great addition of power and cost with 5 oil powered battleships and other vessels powered There was now a major issue of finding oil, There obtaining enough of it, and securing the supply (politically and militarily) (politically Major questions concerning oil: where ? enough? Major militarily and politically secure supply? militarily “Mastery itself was the prize of the venture” – Mastery Winston Churchill Winston Britain would need to be the master of the high Britain seas to keep itself alive seas 11 11 Conversion The entire fleet would The eventually be converted to oil to This process would be This expensive but vital to British naval dominance British Also, Britain needed to Also, decide which company would reap the profits: would Royal Dutch/Shell Group? Anglo-Persian Oil Co?. 12 12 The Shell Menace Charles Greenway was truly the man Charles behind the scenes for Anglo-Persian’s operations operations To win the Admiralty over, he stressed To Samuel’s “Jewishness” and Deterding’s “Dutchness” “Dutchness” His ploy to make Shell appear unreliable was His well received by the British parliament (argued in House of Commons by Churchill, civilian head of the Royal Navy and MP) head 13 13 Government & Anglo-Persian Interests of Interests Anglo-Persian Anglo-Persian Government Government interests Strategic Economic Political 14 14 Terms of the Arrangement Crown owns 51% Crown Board members (2) veto Admiralty with a twenty-one Admiralty year contract for fuel oil year The Royal Navy gets a The rebate from the company’s profits profits Churchill began Churchill negotiating with Shell’s fuel oil contract with the Navy Navy 15 15 Video: Churchill’s Ploy QuickTime ™ and a YUV420 codec decompressor are needed to see this picture. 16 16 Discussion Was Shell really a menace? Was Greenway ethical? What were the strategic dimensions of What government ownership of Anglo-Persian? government 17 17 Just in Time: War Breaks Out On June 17th 1914: Parliament approved Churchill’s bill (254-18) Churchill’s On June 28th 1914, eleven days after Churchill’s bill, Arch Duke Franz Ferdinand of Austria was assassinated at Sarajevo. assassinated August 1st, 1914 1914 Germany declared war on Russia Russia had been mobilized on July 30th Churchill flashed the order to the British fleet, Churchill “Commence Hostilities against Germany.” “Commence 1st World War had begun! 18 18 ...
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This note was uploaded on 04/19/2011 for the course EGEE 120 taught by Professor Considine,timothy during the Spring '07 term at Pennsylvania State University, University Park.

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